Acute transverse myelitis and acute motor axonal neuropathy developed after vaccinations against seasonal and 2009 A/H1N1 influenza.
ABSTRACT Acute transverse myelitis (ATM) has been described as an uncommon complication of vaccinations and is rarely accompanied by inflammatory peripheral neuropathy. We report a case of a 77-year-old woman who developed ATM and acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) following vaccinations against seasonal and 2009 A/H1N1 influenza. She manifested ophthalmoplegia, quadriparesis and sensory impairment. MR imaging showed a longitudinally-extensive spinal cord lesion, and nerve conduction study revealed motor axonal polyneuropathy. Despite prompt treatment, her symptoms poorly recovered. While concurrent ATM and AMAN may suggest the presence of a common antigen, their scarcity indicates the importance of other factors causing immunologic disruptions.
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ABSTRACT: As a result of a court order, computerized summaries of approximately 1,300 cases reported as Guillain-Barré syndrome by state health departments to the Centers for Disease Control during the intensive national surveillance instituted following the swine influenza vaccination program in 1976-1977 became available for further study. Although the data were not uniformly adequate to confirm the diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome, they were sufficient to enable classification according to extent of motor involvement. Vaccinated cases with "extensive" paresis or paralysis occurred in a characteristic epidemiologic pattern closely approximated by a lognormal curve, suggesting a causal relationship between the disease and the vaccine. Cases with "limited" motor involvement showed no such pattern, suggesting that this group included a substantial proportion of cases which were unrelated to the vaccine. The effect attributed to the vaccine lasted for at least six weeks and possibly for eight weeks but not longer. The relative risk of acquiring "extensive" disease over a six-week period following vaccination ranged from 3.96 to 7.75 depending on the particular baseline estimate of expected normal or endemic incidence that was chosen. Correspondingly, the number of cases that could be attributed to the vaccine over the six-week period ranged from 211 to 246, or very slightly higher over an eight-week period if the lowest baseline estimate was used. The total rate of Guillain-Barré syndrome cases attributed to prior use of the vaccine was 4.9 to 5.9 per million vaccinees.American Journal of Epidemiology 07/1984; 119(6):841-79. · 4.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There is a strong association between Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and Penner's serotype 19 (PEN 19) of Campylobacter jejuni. Sera from patients with GBS after C. jejuni infection have autoantibodies to GM1 ganglioside in the acute phase of the illness. Our previous work has suggested that GBS results from an immune response to cross-reactive antigen between lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of the Gram-negative bacterium and membrane components of peripheral nerves. To clarify the pathogenesis of GBS, we have investigated whether GM1-oligosaccharide structure is present in the LPS of C. jejuni (PEN 19) that was isolated from a GBS patient. After extraction of the LPS, the LPS showing the binding activity of cholera toxin, that specifically recognizes the GM1-oligosaccharide was purified by a silica bead column chromatography. Gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis has shown that the purified LPS contained Gal, GalNAc, and NeuAc, which are sugar components of GM1 ganglioside. 1H NMR methods [Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG), total correlation spectroscopy (TOCSY), and nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY)] have revealed that the oligosaccharide structure [Gal beta 1-3 GalNAc beta 1-4(NeuAc alpha 2-3)Gal beta] protrude from the LPS core. This terminal structure [Gal beta 1-3GalNAc beta 1-4(NeuAc alpha 2-3)Gal beta] is identical to the terminal tetrasaccharide of the GM1 ganglioside. This is the first study to demonstrate the existence of molecular mimicry between nerve tissue and the infectious agent that elicits GBS.Journal of Experimental Medicine 12/1993; 178(5):1771-5. · 13.21 Impact Factor