Variceal bleeding is a life-threatening complication of portal hypertension with a high probability of recurrence. Treatment to prevent first bleeding or rebleeding is mandatory. The study has been aimed at investigating the effectiveness of endoscopic band ligation in preventing upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with portal hypertension and to establish the clinical outcome of patients.
We analyzed in a multicenter trial, the efficacy and side effects of endoscopic band ligation for the primary and secondary prophylaxis of esophageal variceal bleeding. We assigned 603 patients with portal hypertension who were hospitalized to receive treatment with endoscopic ligation. Sessions of ligation were repeated every two to three weeks until the varices were eradicated. The primary end point was recurrent bleeding.
The median follow-up period was 32 months. A total of 126 patients had recurrent bleeding. All episodes were related to portal hypertension and 79 to recurrent variceal bleeding. There were major complications in 51 patients (30 had bleeding esophageal ulcers). Seventy-eight patients died, 26 deaths were related to variceal bleeding and 1 to bleeding esophageal ulcers.
A great improvement in the prevention of variceal bleeding has emerged over the last years. However, further therapeutic options that combine higher efficacy, better tolerance and fewer side effects are needed.
"A meta-analysis by Ko SY and others studies indicated that EVL achieved a variceal obliteration rates between 79% and 100% [15–18]. It has been shown previously that varices can be obliterated after 4-5 endoscopic sessions given over a period of 12-24 weeks [16, 17, 19]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Long-term outcome of patients after band ligation have been poorly defined. Therefore, we conducted a long-term follow-up study to delineate the outcome of ligation in patients with portal hypertension in the Hassan II university hospital, Fes, Morocco.
Over 118 months patients treated by endoscopic variceal ligation were received regular follow- up and detailed clinical assessment of at least 24 months.
One hundred twenty five patients were followed up for a mean of 31 months (range 12-107 months). Obliteration of the varices was achieved in 89.6 % (N = 112) of patients, with 3 +/-1.99 (range 1-8) endoscopy sessions over a period of 14 + /-6.8 weeks (range 3-28). The percentage of variceal recurrence during follow-up after ligation was 20.5 % (N = 23). Recurrence were observed in a mean of 22 months +/- 7.3 (range 3-48). Bleeding rate from recurrent varices was 30.4 % (7/23). Rebleeding from esophageal ulcers occurred in 5.6 % (7/125) of patients. Portal hypertensive gastropathy before and after eradication of varices was 17.6% (N = 22) and 44.6% (N = 50) respectively; p< 0.05. Fundal gastric varices was 30.4% (N = 38) and 35.7% (N = 40) before and after eradication of varices respectively; p> 0.05. The overall mortality was 4 % (N = 5).
Band ligation was an effective technical approach for variceal obliteration with low rates of variceal recurrence, rebleeding and development of gastric varices. Furthermore, it was associated with frequent development of portal hypertensive gastropathy.
Pan African Medical Journal 05/2013; 15:3. DOI:10.11604/pamj.2013.15.3.2098
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and objectives
Endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) is recommended to treat esophageal varices (EV) in cirrhosis and portal hypertension. A program of endoscopic surveillance is not clearly established. The aim of this prospective randomized trial was to assess the most effective timing of endoscopic monitoring after variceal eradication and its impact on the patient's outcome and on the costs.
A hundred and two cirrhotic patients with esophageal varices treated by EVL were evaluated. After variceal eradication patients were randomized to receive first endoscopic control at 3 (Group 1) and 6 (Group 2) months respectively.
Variceal obliteration was achieved in all patients. Variceal recurrence was observed in 28 cases at the first control (29.1%) without difference between the two groups (32% vs 29% in group 1 and 2 respectively, p = 0.75). The incidence of large varices is similar in the two groups (33% vs 38% respectively). Using a multivariate analysis, medical therapy with B blockers was the only independent predictor of lowest risk of variceal recurrence [OR 2.30, 95% CI (1.68–3.26)]. Bleeding related to recurrent varices occurred in 3.1% of cases and was associated with portal thrombosis. Child Pugh score ≥ 8 was the only predictor of mortality (p = 0.0002).
Recurrence of varices after banding ligation is not rare but it is associated with a low risk of variceal progression and bleeding. Accordingly, a first endoscopic control at 6 months after variceal eradication associated with a good risk stratification might be a cost-effective strategy of monitoring.
European Journal of Internal Medicine 09/2014; 25(7). DOI:10.1016/j.ejim.2014.06.013 · 2.89 Impact Factor
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