Troponin I and C-Reactive Protein Are Commonly Detected in Patients with Breast Cancer Treated with Dose-Dense Chemotherapy Incorporating Trastuzumab and Lapatinib
ABSTRACT There are no validated methods of early detection of cardiotoxicity from trastuzumab (T) following anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Currently changes in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) are assessed but this approach has limited sensitivity and specificity. Within a prospective feasibility study of dose-dense (dd) doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (AC) → weekly paclitaxel (P) with T and lapatinib (L), we included a preplanned analysis of correlative cardiac Troponin I (cTnI) and C-reactive protein (CRP) as early biomarkers of cardiotoxicity.
As previously described, patients received ddACx 4 → PTL → TL. LVEF was assessed at months 0, 2, 6, 9, and 18 and cTnI and CRP measured every 2 weeks during chemotherapy then at months 6, 9, and 18. These biomarkers were correlated with changes in LVEF.
Ninety-five patients enrolled. Overall, 3 (3%) patients withdrew during AC and 41 (43%) withdrew during PTL → TL, mostly due to diarrhea. Median LVEF was 68% (baseline), 69% (month 2), 65% (month 6), 65% (month 9), and 65% (month 18). The majority (67%) had a detectable cTnI during the study. The proportion of detectable cTnIs increased over time; 4% at baseline, 11% at month 2, and 50% at month 3. The timing of these detectable cTnIs preceded maximum-recorded decline in LVEF. However, overall, maximum cTnI levels did not correlate with LVEF declines. A detectable CRP was seen in 74/95 (78%) but did not correlate with LVEF declines.
In patients receiving ddAC → PTL, cTnIs are commonly detected. These elevations may precede changes in LVEF but, as assessed in this trial, do not predict CHF.
- SourceAvailable from: Elena KinovaCardiotoxicity of Oncologic Treatments, 02/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-51-0273-1
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The HER family of tyrosine kinase receptors includes several members that are clinically important targets in cancer therapies, in particular HER1 (the EGF receptor) and HER2, other members include HER3 and HER4. Trastuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody and lapatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, are drugs that target HER2, which is highly expressed in 20-30% of breast cancers. Trastuzumab is recommended as an adjuvant therapy for lymph node positive, HER2-positive breast cancers, or node-negative cancer with high-risk of recurrence, as well as in stage IV cancers. One serious side effect of trastuzumab is cardiomyocyte dysfunction, resulting in reduced heart contractile efficiency. The incidence of collateral effects on the heart with trastuzumab therapy increases in people with cardiovascular risk factors, heart disease and when combined with other chemotherapeutics. When cardiotoxicity was observed with trastuzumab, several studies have addressed potential cardiac damage of trastuzumab itself and lapatinib. The differences in cardiovascular effects of these two compounds are somewhat unexpected and suggest distinct mechanisms of action, which have clear implications in clinical application and prevention of cardiotoxicity in cardio-oncological approaches.Future Cardiology 09/2011; 7(5):693-704. DOI:10.2217/fca.11.54
Article: Role of biomarkers in cardioncology[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cardiotoxicity is a serious adverse effect of anticancer drugs, impacting on quality of life and overall survival of cancer patients. According to the current standard for monitoring cardiac function, cardiotoxicity is usually detected only when a functional impairment has already occurred, precluding any chance of preventing its development. Over the last decade, however, a new approach, based on the use of cardiac biomarkers, has emerged, and has proven to be an effective alternative strategy for early detection of subclinical cardiac injury. In particular, the role of troponin I in identifying patients at risk of cardiotoxicity and of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in preventing left ventricular ejection fraction reduction and late cardiac events represent an effective tool for the prevention of this complication.Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 09/2011; 49(12):1937-48. DOI:10.1515/CCLM.2011.692 · 2.96 Impact Factor