ATP binding to hemoglobin response gene 1 protein is necessary for regulation of the mating type locus in Candida albicans.
ABSTRACT HBR1 (hemoglobin response gene 1) is an essential gene in Candida albicans that positively regulates mating type locus MTLα gene expression and thereby regulates cell type-specific developmental genes. Hbr1p contains a phosphate-binding loop (P-loop), a highly conserved motif characteristic of ATP- and GTP-binding proteins. Recombinant Hbr1p was isolated in an oligomeric state that specifically bound ATP with K(d) ∼2 μM. ATP but not ADP, AMP, GTP, or dATP specifically protected Hbr1p from proteolysis by trypsin. Site-directed mutagenesis of the highly conserved P-loop lysine (K22Q) and the less conserved glycine (G19S) decreased the binding affinity for soluble ATP and ATP immobilized through its γ-phosphate. ATP bound somewhat more avidly than ATPγS to wild type and mutant Hbr1p. Although Hbr1p exhibits sequence motifs characteristic of adenylate kinases, and adenylate kinase and ATPase activities have been reported for the apparent human ortholog of Hbr1p, assays for adenylate kinase activity, autophosphorylation, and ATPase activity proved negative. Overexpression of wild type but not the mutant forms of Hbr1p restored MTlα2 expression in an HBR1/hbr1 mutant, indicating that ATP binding to the P-loop is necessary for this function of Hbr1p.
SourceAvailable from: Martha S Cyert[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Many disease states result from gene overexpression, often in a specific genetic context. To explore gene overexpression phenotypes systematically, we assembled an array of 5280 yeast strains, each containing an inducible copy of an S. cerevisiae gene, covering >80% of the genome. Approximately 15% of the overexpressed genes (769) reduced growth rate. This gene set was enriched for cell cycle-regulated genes, signaling molecules, and transcription factors. Overexpression of most toxic genes resulted in phenotypes different from known deletion mutant phenotypes, suggesting that overexpression phenotypes usually reflect a specific regulatory imbalance rather than disruption of protein complex stoichiometry. Global overexpression effects were also assayed in the context of a cyclin-dependent kinase mutant (pho85Delta). The resultant gene set was enriched for Pho85p targets and identified the yeast calcineurin-responsive transcription factor Crz1p as a substrate. Large-scale application of this approach should provide a strategy for identifying target molecules regulated by specific signaling pathways.Molecular Cell 02/2006; 21(3):319-30. DOI:10.1016/j.molcel.2005.12.011 · 14.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Candida albicans WO-1 switches reversibly and at high frequency between a white and an opaque colony-forming phenotype that includes dramatic changes in cell morphology and physiology. A misexpression strategy has been used to investigate the role of the opaque-phase-specific gene PEP1 (SAP1), which encodes a secreted aspartyl proteinase, in the expression of the unique opaque-phase phenotype and phase-specific virulence in two animal models. The PEP1 (SAP1) open reading frame was inserted downstream of the promoter of the white-phase-specific gene WH11 in the transforming vector pCPW7, and the resulting transformants were demonstrated to misexpress PEP1 (SAP1) in the white phase. Misexpression did not confer any of the unique morphological characteristics of the opaque phase to cells in the white phase and had no effect on the switching process. However, misexpression conferred upon white-phase cells the increased capacity of opaque-phase cells to grow in medium in which protein was the sole nitrogen source. Misexpression of PEP1 (SAP1) had no effect on the virulence of white-phase cells in a systemic mouse model, in which white-phase cells were already more virulent than opaque-phase cells. Misexpression did, however, confer upon white-phase cells the dramatic increase in colonization of skin in a cutaneous mouse model that was exhibited by opaque-phase cells. Misexpression of PEP1 (SAP1) conferred upon white-phase cells two dissociable opaque-phase characteristics: increased adhesion and the capacity to cavitate skin. The addition of pepstatin A to the cutaneous model inhibited the latter, but not the former, suggesting that the latter is effected by released enzyme, while the former is effected by cell-associated enzyme.Infection and Immunity 01/2000; · 4.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A great number of naturally occurring mononucleotides can be separated and identified by poly(ethyleneimine)-cellulose thin-layer chromatography. RF data for 33 compounds are given, and the factors are discussed which influence the mobility under different elution conditions. The method is compared with other present techniques for separating nucleotides.Journal of Chromatography A 11/1964; 16:111-25. DOI:10.1016/S0021-9673(01)82445-6 · 4.26 Impact Factor