Previous prenatal loss as a predictor of perinatal depression and anxiety.
ABSTRACT Prenatal loss, the death of a fetus/child through miscarriage or stillbirth, is associated with significant depression and anxiety, particularly in a subsequent pregnancy.
This study examined the degree to which symptoms of depression and anxiety associated with a previous loss persisted following a subsequent successful pregnancy.
Data were derived from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort, a longitudinal cohort study in the west of England that has followed mothers from pregnancy into the postnatal period. A total of 13,133 mothers reported on the number and conditions of previous perinatal losses and provided self-report measures of depression and anxiety at 18 and 32 weeks' gestation and at 8 weeks and 8, 21 and 33 months postnatally. Controls for pregnancy outcome and obstetric and psychosocial factors were included.
Generalised estimating equations indicated that the number of previous miscarriages/stillbirths significantly predicted symptoms of depression (β = 0.18, s.e. = 0.07, P<0.01) and anxiety (β = 0.14, s.e. = 0.05, P<0.01) in a subsequent pregnancy, independent of key psychosocial and obstetric factors. This association remained constant across the pre- and postnatal period, indicating that the impact of a previous prenatal loss did not diminish significantly following the birth of a healthy child.
Depression and anxiety associated with a previous prenatal loss shows a persisting pattern that continues after the birth of a subsequent (healthy) child. Interventions targeting women with previous prenatal loss may improve the health outcomes of women and their children.
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ABSTRACT: Women with a history of miscarriage report feeling emotionally guarded during a subsequent pregnancy and may be at increased risk for pregnancy-related anxiety and greater health care utilization compared with women without a history of miscarriage. However, these behaviors have not been studied in women with a history of multiple miscarriages. We examined the effect of a history of multiple miscarriages on health behaviors and health care utilization in 2,854 women ages 18 to 36 years expecting their first live-born baby. Self-reported health behaviors and use of health care resources during pregnancy were compared for women with a history of two or more miscarriages and women with one or no miscarriages. Women with a history of multiple miscarriages were more than four times as likely to smoke during pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 4.69; 95% CI, 2.63-8.38) compared with women without a history of multiple miscarriages. They initiated prenatal care earlier (7.0 vs. 8.2 weeks gestation), had higher odds of third trimester emergency department visit (aOR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.24-3.94), higher odds of hospitalization during pregnancy (aOR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.01-2.73), and twice the mean number of third trimester emergency department visits and hospitalizations during pregnancy. Women with a history of multiple miscarriages may be more likely to smoke and may demonstrate increased health care utilization during a subsequent pregnancy. Compassionate, individualized, and supportive counseling by providers may address smoking and other health behaviors as well as increased health care utilization. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Women s Health Issues 01/2015; 25(2). DOI:10.1016/j.whi.2014.11.008 · 1.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Stillbirths (>20 weeks’ gestation), which account for about 1 in 200 US pregnancies, may grieve parents deeply. Unresolved grief may lead to persistent depression.Methods We compared depressive symptoms in 2009 (6–36 months after index delivery) among consenting women in the Stillbirth Collaborative Research Network's population-based case–control study conducted 2006–08 (n = 275 who delivered a stillbirth and n = 522 who delivered a healthy livebirth (excluding livebirths <37 weeks, infants who had been admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit or who died). Women scoring >12 on the Edinburgh Depression Scale were classified as currently depressed. Crude (cOR) and adjusted (aOR) odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals [CI] were computed from univariate and multivariable logistic models, with weighting for study design and differential consent. Marginal structural models examined potential selection bias due to low follow-up.ResultsCurrent depression was more likely in women with stillbirth (14.8%) vs. healthy livebirth (8.3%, cOR 1.90 [95% CI 1.20, 3.02]). However, after control for history of depression and factors associated with both depression and stillbirth, the stillbirth association was no longer significant (aOR 1.35 [95% CI 0.79, 2.30]). Conversely, for the 76% of women with no history of depression, a significant association remained after adjustment for confounders (aOR 1.98 [95% CI 1.02, 3.82]).Conclusions Improved screening for depression and referral may be needed for women's health care. Research should focus on defining optimal methods for support of women suffering stillbirth so as to lower the risk of subsequent depression.Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 03/2015; 29(2). DOI:10.1111/ppe.12176 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pregnancy is generally viewed as a time of fulfillment and joy; however, for many women it can be a stressful event. In South Asia it is associated with cultural stigmas revolving around gender discrimination, abnormal births and genetic abnormalities. This cross-sectional study was done at four teaching hospitals in Lahore from February, 2014 to June, 2014. A total of 500 pregnant women seen at hospital obstetrics and gynecology departments were interviewed with a questionnaire consisting of three sections: demographics, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Social Provisions Scale (SPS). Pearson's chi-squared test, bivariate correlations and multiple linear regression were used to analyze associations between the independent variables and scores on the HADS and SPS. Mean age among the 500 respondents was 27.41 years (5.65). Anxiety levels in participants were categorized as normal (145 women, 29%), borderline (110, 22%) or anxious (245, 49%). Depression levels were categorized as normal (218 women, 43.6%), borderline (123, 24.6%) or depressed (159, 31.8%). Inferential analysis revealed that higher HADS scores were significantly associated with lower scores on the SPS, rural background, history of harassment, abortion, cesarean delivery and unplanned pregnancies (P < .05). Social support (SPS score) mediated the relationship between the total number of children, gender of previous children and HADS score. Women with more daughters were significantly more likely to score higher on the HADS and lower on the SPS, whereas higher numbers of sons were associated with the opposite trends in the scores (P < .05). Because of the predominantly patriarchal sociocultural context in Pakistan, the predictors of antenatal anxiety and depression may differ from those in developed countries. We therefore suggest that interventions designed and implemented to reduce antenatal anxiety and depression should take into account these unique factors.PLoS ONE 01/2015; 10(1):e0116510. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0116510 · 3.53 Impact Factor