p62/SQSTM1 involved in cisplatin resistance in human ovarian cancer cells by clearing ubiquitinated proteins.
ABSTRACT Mechanisms of cisplatin resistance in cancer cells are not fully understood. Here, we show a critical role for the ubiquitin-binding protein p62/SQSTM1 in cisplatin resistance in human ovarian cancer cells (HOCCs). Specifically, we found that cisplatin-resistant SKOV3/DDP cells express much higher levels of p62 than do cisplatin-sensitive SKOV3 cells. The protein p62 binds ubiquitinated proteins for transport to autophagic degradation, reducing apoptosis induced by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in SKOV3/DDP cells. Knockdown of p62 or inhibition of autophagy using 3-methyladenine resensitises SKOV3/DDP cells to cisplatin. Collectively, our data indicate that p62 acts as a receptor or adaptor for autophagic degradation of ubiquitinated proteins, and plays an important role in preventing ER stress-induced apoptosis, leading to cisplatin resistance in HOCCs.
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ABSTRACT: Cisplatin resistance is a major challenge in the clinical treatment of ovarian cancer, of which the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of autophagy in cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer cells. A2780cp cisplatin‑resistant ovarian carcinoma cells and the A2780 parental cell line, were used as a model throughout the present study. The cell viability was determined using a water soluble tetrazolium salt‑8 assay, and western blot analysis was performed to determine the protein expression levels of microtubule‑associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3 I and LC3 II), and Beclin 1. Beclin 1 small interfering (si)RNA and 3‑methyladenine (3‑MA) were used to determine whether inhibition of autophagy may re‑sensitize cisplatin‑resistant cells to cisplatin. The ultrastructural analysis of autophagosomes was performed using transmission electron microscopy, and apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry. In both A2780cp and A2780 cells, cisplatin induced the formation of autophagosomes and upregulated the expression levels of autophagy protein markers, LC3 II and Beclin 1. However, the levels of autophagy were significantly higher in A2780cp cells, as compared with the A2780 cells. The combined treatment of cisplatin with 3‑MA, the autophagy pharmacological inhibitor, increased the cell death rate, but had no effects on apoptosis, as compared with cisplatin treatment alone in A2780cp cells. However, inhibition of autophagy by siRNA knockdown of Beclin 1 expression enhanced cisplatin‑induced cell death and apoptosis. The findings of the present study suggest that autophagy has a protective role in human ovarian cancer cells, and that targeting autophagy may promote chemotherapeutic sensitivity.Molecular Medicine Reports 10/2014; 11(1). DOI:10.3892/mmr.2014.2671 · 1.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The antitumor activity of an inhibitor of 26S proteasome bortezomib (Velcade) has been observed in various malignancies, including colon cancer, prostate cancer, breast cancer, and ovarian cancer. Bortezomib has been proposed to stimulate autophagy, but scientific observations did not always support this. Interactions between ERK activity and autophagy are complex and not completely clear. Autophagy proteins have recently been shown to regulate the functions of ERK, and ERK activation has been found to induce autophagy. On the other hand, sustained activation of ERK has also been shown to inhibit the maturation step of the autophagy process. In this study, we sought to identify the mechanism of autophagy regulation in cancer cells treated with bortezomib. Our results indicate that bortezomib blocked the autophagic flux without inhibiting the fusion of the autophagosome and lysosome. In ovarian cancer, as well as endometrial cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma cells, bortezomib inhibited protein degradation in lysosomes by suppressing cathepsins, which requires the participation of ERK phosphorylation, but not JNK or p38. Our findings that ERK phosphorylation reduced cathepsins further explain how ERK phosphorylation inhibits the autophagic flux. In conclusion, bortezomib may induce ERK phosphorylation to suppress cathepsin B and inhibit the catalytic process of autophagy in ovarian cancer and other solid tumors. The inhibition of cisplatin-induced autophagy by bortezomib can enhance chemotherapy efficacy in ovarian cancer. As we also found that bortezomib blocks the autophagic flux in other cancers, the synergistic cytotoxic effect of bortezomib by abolishing chemotherapy-related autophagy may help us develop strategies of combination therapies for multiple cancers.Cell Death & Disease 11/2014; 5:e1510. DOI:10.1038/cddis.2014.468 · 5.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to explore the role of autophagy in cisplatin-resistant osteosarcoma. Cisplatin-resistant osteosarcoma cell line (MG63/DDP) was obtained from parental MG63 by treating cisplatin with an intermittent stepwise selection protocol. The autophagy in MG63/DDP and MG63 was fully analyzed by immunofluorescence and western blot analysis. Meanwhile, the autophagy and the sensitivity to cisplatin for MG63/DDP and MG63 after inhibition of beclin1 were analyzed in vitro and in vivo. Increased autophagy was observed in cisplatin resistant MG63/DDP cells and in the cisplatin-treated MG63 and MG63/DDP cells. Meanwhile, inhibition the beclin1 significantly inhibited the formation of autophagosome and resulted in the increase in the sensitivity to cisplatin for both MG63 and MG63/DDP cells in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, autophagy is implicated in the cisplatin resistant osteosarcoma, and inhibition of beclin1 could be a target for improving osteosarcoma therapy.