Post-transcriptional modification of RNAs by artificial Box H/ACA and Box C/D RNPs
ABSTRACT RNA-guided RNA 2'-O-methylation and pseudouridylation are naturally occurring processes, in which guide RNAs specifically direct modifications to rRNAs or spliceosomal snRNAs in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Modifications can profoundly alter the properties of an RNA, thus influencing the contributions of the RNA to the cellular process in which it participates. Recently, it has been shown that, by expressing artificial guide RNAs (derived from naturally occurring guide RNAs), modifications can also be specifically introduced into other RNAs, thus offering an opportunity to study RNAs in vivo. Here, we present strategies for constructing guide RNAs and manipulating RNA modifications in the nucleus.
- SourceAvailable from: Yi-Tao Yu
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- "While the protein components of the RNP are responsible for stabilization of the RNP as well as enzymatic activity, the non-coding RNA is responsible for substrate recognition through complementary base pairing interactions. Thus, in theory, through the construction and expression of artificial Box H/ACA RNAs any uridine residue should be amenable to targeted modification (87). "
ABSTRACT: An estimated one-third of genetic disorders are the result of mutations that generate premature termination codons (PTCs) within protein coding genes. These disorders are phenotypically diverse and consist of diseases that affect both young and old individuals. Various small molecules have been identified that are capable of modulating the efficiency of translation termination, including select antibiotics of the aminoglycoside family and multiple novel synthetic molecules, including PTC124. Several of these agents have proved their effectiveness at promoting nonsense suppression in preclinical animal models, as well as in clinical trials. In addition, it has recently been shown that box H/ACA RNA-guided peudouridylation, when directed to modify PTCs, can also promote nonsense suppression. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of eukaryotic translation termination and discuss various methods for promoting the read-through of disease-causing PTCs, as well as the current obstacles that stand in the way of using the discussed agents broadly in clinical practice.International Journal of Molecular Medicine 06/2014; 34(2). DOI:10.3892/ijmm.2014.1809 · 2.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Small antisense RNAs targeted to the HIV-1 promoter have been shown to remodel the surrounding chromatin to a state unfavorable for transcriptional activation, yet transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) of HIV-1 has, to date, not been shown in primary human cells. We demonstrate here that TGS can reduce viral transcription in primary human CD4(+) T cells; however, increasing viral burden results in the loss of this antiviral effect. This observation suggests a critical level at which viral RNA can dilute out effective targeting by TGS-based RNAs. Furthermore, studies into off-target effects have identified a potential interaction between the small nucleolar RNA pathway and the TGS-based antisense RNA, resulting in activation of p53. Although not overtly toxic to primary cells, this represents a novel interaction between antisense RNAs and a cellular pathway that should be considered when pursuing small antisense RNA-based therapeutics.Human gene therapy 11/2011; 23(5):473-83. DOI:10.1089/hum.2011.165 · 3.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Isomerization from uridine to pseudouridine (pseudouridylation) is largely catalyzed by a family of small ribonucleoproteins called box H/ACA RNPs, each of which contains one unique small RNA-the box H/ACA RNA. The specificity of the pseudouridylation reaction is determined by the base-pairing interactions between the guide sequence of the box H/ACA RNA and the target sequence within an RNA substrate. Thus, by creating a new box H/ACA RNA harboring an artificial guide sequence that base-pairs with the substrate sequence, one can site-specifically introduce pseudouridines into virtually any RNA (e.g., mRNA, ribosomal RNA, small nuclear RNA, telomerase RNA and so on). Pseudouridylation changes the properties of a uridine residue and is likely to alter the role of its corresponding RNA in certain cellular processes, thereby enabling basic research into the effects of RNA modifications. Here we take a TRM4 reporter gene (also known as NCL1) as an example, and we present a protocol for designing a box H/ACA RNA to site-specifically pseudouridylate TRM4 mRNA. Disease-related mutation can result in early termination of translation by creating a premature termination codon (PTC); however, pseudouridylation at the PTC can suppress this translation termination (nonsense suppression). Thus, the experimental procedures described in this protocol may provide a novel way to treat PTC-related diseases. This protocol takes 10-13 d to complete.Nature Protocol 04/2012; 7(4):789-800. DOI:10.1038/nprot.2012.029 · 9.67 Impact Factor