The composition and extent of coronary artery plaque detected by multislice computed tomographic angiography provides incremental prognostic value in patients with suspected coronary artery disease.
ABSTRACT Multislice computed tomographic coronary angiography (CTCA) provides accurate noninvasive assessment of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, data on the prognostic value of CTCA in patients with suspected CAD are only beginning to emerge. The aim of the study was to assess the prognostic value of CTCA in patients with suspected CAD. Patients (males = 259, females = 235; mean age 58.2 ± 9.8 years) with suspected CAD who underwent 16- or 64-slice CTCA were followed for 1,308 ± 318 days for cardiac death, nonfatal myocaridal infarction (MI) and late (>90 days after CTCA) revascularization. Patient outcomes were related to clinical and CTCA data. Cox proportional-hazards model was applied in stepwise forward fashion to identify outcome predictors. Coronary artery plaque was found in 340 patients. Cardiac events occurred in 40 patients including cardiac death (n = 9), nonfatal MI (n = 8) and late revascularization (n = 23). A multivariable analysis identified the following independent predictors for adverse cardiac events: obstructive plaque in a proximal coronary artery segment (hazard ratio (HR) 2.73; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.35-5.54; P = 0.005), the number of segments with noncalcified plaque(s) (HR 1.53 per segment; 95%CI: 1.21-1.92; P < 0.001), the number of segments with mixed plaque(s) (HR 1.56 per segment; 95%CI: 1.27-1.92; P < 0.001) and the number of segments with calcified plaque(s) (HR 1.21 per segment; 95%CI: 1.07-1.37; P = 0.002). In patients with suspected CAD, both the extent and composition of atherosclerotic plaque as determined by CTCA are prognostic of subsequent cardiac events.
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ABSTRACT: Computed tomography has undergone rapid developments over the last decades, in particular, the emergence and technological improvements of multislice CT scanners enable satisfactory performance of cardiac CT imaging. Cardiac CT has been widely used in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease, which is the leading cause of death in industrialized countries. Cardiac CT also provides valuable information to predict the extent and prognosis of coronary artery disease. The main disadvantage of cardiac CT imaging is radiation dose, which raises concern in recent years, as there is potential risk of radiation-induced malignancy. This article will provide an overview of the current research status of cardiac CT imaging in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease, highlight the key applications of cardiac CT imaging and briefly discuss future directions of this fast advancing technique.06/2012; 2(2):98-105. DOI:10.3978/j.issn.2223-4292.2012.05.02
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ABSTRACT: High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and coronary artery plaque characteristics have been separately evaluated as prognosticators of adverse cardiovascular events; however, their relationship remains unclear. We therefore evaluated the prognostic value of hsCRP in relation to plaque subtypes in predicting adverse cardiovascular outcome in asymptomatic patients without known coronary artery disease. A total of 4690 asymptomatic patients who underwent coronary computed tomography angiography for screening purposes were included. HsCRP was categorized as <1 mg/L, 1-3 mg/L and >3 mg/L. Cardiovascular events were defined as cardiovascular death, acute coronary syndrome, and stroke. During follow-up (median 49 months, interquartile range 34-59 months), adverse cardiovascular events were observed in 56 (1.2%) patients. Higher hsCRP was associated with poor outcome in overall patients (OR 2.716, 95% CI 1.512-4.880, p = 0.001 for hsCRP 1-3 mg/L, OR 2.705, 95% CI 1.239-5.908, p = 0.013 for hsCRP > 3 mg/L, hsCRP <1 mg/L as reference). When patients were evaluated according to plaque subtype, hsCRP > 3 mg/L was a significant predictor of poor outcome only in patients with noncalcified plaques (NCP; p = 0.038). After adjusting for Framingham risk and coronary artery calcium score, hsCRP > 3 mg/L was a significant predictor of adverse outcomes in the presence of NCP (p = 0.048) but not in the presence of CP or MCP (p = 0.742). Elevated hsCRP is a predictor of adverse cardiovascular events in asymptomatic patients with NCP. After adjusting for Framingham risk and coronary artery calcium scores, hsCRP > 3 mgL remained an independent predictor of risk in patients with NCP but not in patients with CP or MCP.Atherosclerosis 07/2012; 224(1):201-7. DOI:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2012.06.061 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Plaque constitution on computed tomography coronary angiography (CTA) is associated with prognosis. At present only visual assessment of plaque constitution is possible. An accurate automatic, quantitative approach for CTA plaque constitution assessment would improve reproducibility and allows higher accuracy. The present study assessed the feasibility of a fully automatic and quantitative analysis of atherosclerosis on CTA. Clinically derived CTA and intravascular ultrasound virtual histology (IVUS VH) datasets were used to investigate the correlation between quantitatively automatically derived CTA parameters and IVUS VH. A total of 57 patients underwent CTA prior to IVUS VH. First, quantitative CTA quantitative computed tomography (QCT) was performed. Per lesion stenosis parameters and plaque volumes were assessed. Using predefined HU thresholds, CTA plaque volume was differentiated in 4 different plaque types necrotic core (NC), dense calcium (DC), fibrotic (FI) and fibro-fatty tissue (FF). At the identical level of the coronary, the same parameters were derived from IVUS VH. Bland-Altman analyses were performed to assess the agreement between QCT and IVUS VH. Assessment of plaque volume using QCT in 108 lesions showed excellent correlation with IVUS VH (r = 0.928, p < 0.001) (Fig. 1). The correlation of both FF and FI volume on IVUS VH and QCT was good (r = 0.714, p < 0.001 and r = 0.695, p < 0.001 respectively) with corresponding bias and 95 % limits of agreement of 24 mm(3) (-42; 90) and 7.7 mm(3) (-54; 70). Furthermore, NC and DC were well-correlated in both modalities (r = 0.523, p < 0.001) and (r = 0.736, p < 0.001). Automatic, quantitative CTA tissue characterization is feasible using a dedicated software tool. Fig. 1 Schematic illustration of the characterization of coronary plaque on CTA: cross-correlation with IVUS VH. First, the 3-dimensional centerline was generated from the CTA data set using an automatic tree extraction algorithm (Panel I). Using a unique registration a complete pullback series of IVUS images was mapped on the CTA volume using true anatomical markers (Panel II). Fully automatic lumen and vessel wall contour detection was performed for both imaging modalities (Panel III). Finally, fusion-based quantification of atherosclerotic lesions was based on the lumen and vessel wall contours as well as the corresponding reference lines (estimate of normal tapering of the coronary artery), as shown in panel IV. At the level of the minimal lumen area (MLA) (yellow lines), stenosis parameters, could be calculated for both imaging techniques. Additionally, plaque volumes and plaque types were derived for the whole coronary artery lesion, ranging from the proximal to distal lesion marker (blue markers). Fibrotic tissue was labeled in dark green, Fibro-fatty tissue in light green, dense calcium in white and necrotic core was labeled in red.The international journal of cardiovascular imaging 02/2013; DOI:10.1007/s10554-013-0194-x · 2.32 Impact Factor