Estrogen up-regulates ATBF1 transcription but causes its protein degradation in estrogen receptor-alpha-positive breast cancer cells.
ABSTRACT The proper level of estrogen-estrogen receptor (ER) signaling is important for the maintenance of epithelial homeostasis in the breast. In a previous study we demonstrated that ATBF1, which has been suggested as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer, inhibited estrogen-mediated cell proliferation by selectively competing with AIB1 for binding to the ER. However, the expression of ATBF1 mRNA was shown to positively correlate with ER in breast cancer specimens. We, therefore, examined whether estrogen regulates ATBF1. We demonstrated that estrogen up-regulated the transcription of ATBF1, which was mediated by the direct binding of the ER onto the ATBF1 promoter, and that a half-estrogen-responsive element in the ATBF1 promoter was essential for ER direct binding. Furthermore, we found that estrogen at lower levels increased, but at higher levels decreased the expression of ATBF1 protein, which involved the degradation of ATBF1 protein by the estrogen-responsive proteasome system. ATBF1 protein levels fluctuate with estrogen levels. Although lower levels of estrogen increased ATBF1 protein expression, ATBF1 still inhibited cell proliferation caused by lower levels of estrogen. These findings not only reveal an autoregulatory feedback loop between ATBF1 and estrogen-ER signaling but also suggest that ATBF1 plays a role in both the maintenance of breast epithelial homeostasis and breast tumorigenesis caused by elevated estrogen levels.
Article: Pattern of distribution of cells positive for estrogen receptor alpha and progesterone receptor in relation to proliferating cells in the mammary gland.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Since cell proliferation is indispensable for the growth and development of the breast, and estrogens are considered to play a major role in promoting cell proliferation, while progesterone influences its differentiation, the present work was designed with the purpose of verifying the relationship between cells containing steroid hormone receptors and proliferating cells in the normal human breast. Twelve breast samples were analyzed for their content of lobules type 1 (Lob1), Lob2, Lob3, and Lob4, and the number of cells containing estrogen receptor alpha (ER-alpha), progesterone receptor (PgR), or expressing Ki67 antibody was determined by double immunocytochemical technique with specific antibodies. The highest percentage of ER-alpha, PgR, and Ki67 positive cells was found in Lob1, with a progressive reduction in the more differentiated Lob2 and Lob3. ER-alpha and PgR positive cells were found exclusively in the breast epithelium and were negative for Ki67, while cells positive for Ki67 did not express receptors. These findings were compared with the distribution of ER-alpha and PgR in the autoradiographs of mammary gland of young virgin rats inoculated with 3H-thymidine for determination of the DNA labeling index (DNA-LI). Both the DNA-LI and the percentage of ER-alpha and PgR positive cells were maximal in the epithelium of terminal end buds, and these values were reduced in alveolar buds and lobules. ER-alpha and PgR positive cells did not proliferate, and those cells that had incorporated 3H-thymidine were negative for both receptors. Our results led us to conclude that the content of ER-alpha and PgR in the normal mammary tissue varies with the degree of lobular development, in parallel with cell proliferation. However, the expression of receptors occurs in cells other than the proliferating cells, indicating that they represent at least two separate cell populations. These findings open new avenues towards the understanding of the mechanisms through which estrogens and progesterone affect the proliferative activity of breast epithelial cells, and their role in the initiation of the cascade of events that leads a normal cell to cancer.Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 03/1999; 53(3):217-27. · 4.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The ovarian steroids estrogen and progesterone (E(2) and P) are essential for normal mammary gland growth and development; however, the mechanisms by which they influence the proliferative activity of the mammary epithelium remain unclear. Mammary epithelial cells cells expressing the receptors for E(2) and P (ER and PR respectively) are separate from, although often adjacent to, those capable of proliferating, implying that the ovarian steroids act indirectly via paracrine or juxtacrine growth factors to stimulate entry into the cell cycle. A large number of candidate factors have been identified in a variety of different experimental systems, and it appears that transforming growth factor beta may play a role in preventing proliferation of steroid receptor-containing cells. Dysregulation of the strict inverse relationship between ERalpha expression and proliferation is detectable in premalignant human breast lesions, indicating that it might be essential to the tumorigenic process. Challenges for the future include determining which of the candidates identified as being mediators of the effects of E(2) are physiologically and clinically relevant as well as finding out how ERalpha-containing cells become proliferative during tumorigenesis. Answering these questions could greatly increase our understanding of the factors controlling mammary gland development and the processes leading to cancer formation.Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia 02/2004; 9(1):3-13. · 6.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Oestrogen exerts its influence on target organs through activating oestrogen receptors (ERs) and regulating downstream genes by means of their oestrogen-responsive elements. Efp, a target gene product of ER alpha, is a member of the RING-finger B-box coiled-coil (RBCC) motif family. Efp is predominantly expressed in various female organs as well as in breast cancers, and is thought to be essential for oestrogen-dependent cell proliferation and organ development Efp-disrupted mice display underdeveloped uteri and reduced oestrogen responsiveness. Here we show that Efp is a RING-finger-dependent ubiquitin ligase (E3) that targets proteolysis of 14-3-3 sigma, a negative cell cycle regulator that causes G2 arrest. We demonstrate that tumour growth of breast cancer MCF7 cells implanted in female athymic mice is reduced by treatment with antisense Efp oligonucleotide. Efp-overexpressing MCF7 cells in ovariectomized athymic mice generate tumours in the absence of oestrogen. Loss of Efp function in mouse embryonic fibroblasts results in an accumulation of 14-3-3 sigma, which is responsible for reduced cell growth. These data provide an insight into the cell-cycle machinery and tumorigenesis of breast cancer by identifying 14-3-3 sigma as a target for proteolysis by Efp, leading to cell proliferation.Nature 07/2002; 417(6891):871-5. · 36.28 Impact Factor