Epidemiology of canine glaucoma presented to University of Zurich from 1995 to 2009. Part 1: Congenital and primary glaucoma (4 and 123 cases)
ABSTRACT To investigate the epidemiology of canine congenital and primary glaucoma in the cases presented to the University of Zurich, Vetsuisse Faculty (UZH) from 1995 to 2009.
Information was obtained from the computer database of patients examined by members of the UZH Ophthalmology Service, between January 1995 and August 2009. Congenital and primary glaucoma was diagnosed based on the age of onset, the lack of evidence of any antecedent eye conditions, and/or the presence and severity of iridocorneal angle defects. The data was evaluated for breed, gender and age at presentation.
A total of 5984 dogs presented to the UZH Ophthalmology service between 1995 and 2009. Four dogs of different breed were diagnosed with congenital glaucoma and 123 dogs were diagnosed with primary glaucoma. For the primary glaucomas the overall male to female ratio (M:F) was 1:1.41 and the age of onset ranged from 0.12 to 18.3 years with a mean of 7.3 ± 3.6 years. Data suggested a predisposition for primary glaucoma in the Siberian Husky, Magyar Vizsla and Newfoundland from 2004 to 2009.
The report presents the epidemiology of canine congenital and primary glaucomas presented to the UZH from 1995 to 2009. A previous suspicion of predisposition for primary glaucoma in the Newfoundland dog (n = 6) and the Magyar Vizsla breed (n = 8) was confirmed.
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ABSTRACT: Objective-To determine intraocular pressure (IOP) in healthy Hermann's tortoises (Testudo hermanni). Animals-26 outdoor-housed Hermann's tortoises (13 males and 13 females); body weight ranged from 255 to 2,310 g, and age ranged from 4 to > 50 years. Procedures-After a preliminary ophthalmic evaluation was performed, IOP was measured by means of a rebound tonometer in both eyes of each tortoise. Three measurements were obtained for each eye; successive measurements were obtained from alternate eyes. Each measurement was based on the mean of 6 values automatically provided by the rebound tonometer. Statistical analysis was used to evaluate correlations between variables and to identify sex- or size-related IOP variations, and changes in IOP over multiple measurements. Results-Mean ± SEM IOP of the 52 eyes was 15.74 ± 0.20 mm Hg (range, 9 to 22 mm Hg). Results for t tests did not reveal significant differences in IOP between the right and left eyes or between males and females. A significant moderate negative correlation (r = -0.41; r(2) = 0.169) between IOP and body weight was detected. Results of repeated-measures ANOVA revealed a significant increase in IOP over multiple measurements. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Rebound tonometry was a practical and rapid means of determining IOP in small- to medium-sized tortoises that required minimal manual restraint of the animals. Establishing IOP values in healthy Hermann's tortoises will provide a reference frame for use during complete ophthalmic examinations, thus allowing clinicians to diagnose a broader spectrum of ocular pathological conditions in tortoises.American Journal of Veterinary Research 11/2012; 73(11):1807-12. DOI:10.2460/ajvr.73.11.1807 · 1.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Purpose. Previously, we mapped the disease locus in the Beagle model of autosomal recessive primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) to a 4 Mb interval on chromosome 20, and identified a Gly661Arg variant in ADAMTS10 as the candidate disease-causing variant. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the Gly661Arg variant of ADAMTS10 causes glaucoma by genotyping dogs of various breeds affected and unaffected by primary glaucoma. Methods. Dogs of various breeds, affected or unaffected with primary glaucoma, were genotyped for the Gly661Arg variant of ADAMTS10, as well as 7 other non-synonymous SNPs in other genes in the Beagle POAG locus that segregate with disease. Alternate allele frequencies were calculated with 95% confidence intervals and comparisons made to expected allele frequency relative to disease prevalence or between cases and controls. Results. For the non-synonymous SNPs other than the ADAMTS10 variant, control dogs were identified that were homozygous for the alternative alleles, ruling out those variants as causative. None of the non-synonymous SNPs were found associated with primary glaucoma in American Cocker Spaniels. The Gly661Arg variant of ADAMTS10 was the only variant with minor allele frequency consistent with the prevalence of primary glaucoma in the general Beagle population. The only dog found homozygous for the Gly661Arg variant of ADAMTS10 was an affected Beagle, unrelated to the POAG colony. Conclusions. These findings support the Gly661Arg mutation of ADAMTS10 as the likely cause of POAG in Beagles.Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 02/2013; 54(3). DOI:10.1167/iovs.12-10796 · 3.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine normal intraocular pressure (IOP) values by means of rebound tonometry in unanaesthetised ferrets, and to compare rebound and applanation tonometry, 55 clinically healthy ferrets were included in an observational, prospective, blinded study. On 52 ferrets, IOP was measured by means of rebound and applanation tonometry. On 3 ferrets, rebound tonometry was performed every two hours over a 24-hour period. Mean IOPs of the 104 eyes obtained with the rebound tonometer were 14.07±0.35 (95% CI 13.37 to 14.77) tonometer-units (TU). The IOP was significantly higher in males than in females, controlling for age and weight. A study-ordered decrease in coefficient of variation (CV) was observed (measurement 1-52=21.2±1.4 per cent v measurement 53-104=14.4±1.1 per cent) and high CVs (>30 per cent) were significantly less frequent in measurement 53-104. A significant difference in IOP during the 24- hour measurements was found, with the lowest IOP recorded at 22:00. The tonometers presented poor agreement, and IOP values were not correlated. The difference in IOP estimation increased with the magnitude of the measurements. Applanation tonometry presented a significant higher frequency of per-eye IOP values exceeding 25 and 30 TU, and a significant lower repeatability (CV=37.1±2.6 per cent v 17.8±1.2 per cent) compared with rebound tonometry. In conclusion, several factors need to be considered when measuring IOP in ferrets.03/2013; 172(15). DOI:10.1136/vr.101086