Factors associated with short-course antiretroviral prophylaxis (dual therapy) adherence for PMTCT in Nkangala district, South Africa
ABSTRACT To identify factors that influence adherence to short-course antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis by pregnant women and mothers participating in the HIV prevention of mother to child (PMTCT) programme.
The sample interviewed included 139 HIV-positive antenatal women (mean gestational age 32 weeks; sexually transmitted diseases [STD] = 2.8, range 4-9 months) and 607 postnatal HIV-positive women, with either having an infant aged 1-10 weeks (30.8%), 11 weeks to 6 months (36.7%) or 7-12 months (32.5%) from Nkangala district, Mpumalanga province, South Africa.
A large percentage of antenatal and postnatal women in this study initiated ARV prophylaxis for PMTCT or were on ARV (85.6% and 98%, respectively). Sixty-one per cent of antenatal and 85.9% of postnatal women reported complete adherence to the appropriate medication schedule in the 4 days preceding the interview or prior to delivery. In multivariate analysis, it was found that women with higher HIV status disclosure and less discrimination were better in maternal AZT adherence, women with higher male involvement were better in maternal and infant nevirapine adherence.
Adherence to maternal and infant dual therapy prophylaxis was found to be less than optimal. Community factors (discrimination, HIV disclosure, male involvement) contribute to adherence to short-course ARV prophylaxis in this largely rural setting in South Africa.
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ABSTRACT: Despite the biomedical potential to eliminate vertical HIV transmission, drug adherence to short regimens is often sub-optimal. To inform future programmes, we reviewed evidence on the factors influencing maternal and infant drug adherence to preventing MTCT drug regimens at delivery in sub-Saharan Africa. A literature review yielding 14 studies on adherence to drug regimes among HIV-positive pregnant women and mothers in sub-Saharan Africa was conducted. Rates of maternal adherence to preventive drug regimens at time of delivery varied widely across sites between 35 and 93.5%. Factors most commonly associated with low adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ARV) prophylaxis for preventing MTCT at the health system level include giving birth at home, quality and timing of HIV testing and counselling, and late distribution of nevirapine (NVP). Socio-demographic and demand-side factors include fear of stigma, lack of male involvement, fear of partner's reaction to disclosure, few antenatal (ANC) visits, young age and lack of education. With the implementation of the newly published WHO guidelines recommending triple-drug ARV regimen during pregnancy and breastfeeding for all women with HIV, it is important that women are able to adhere to recommended drug regimens. Service improvements should include clear and timely communication with women about the benefits of combined regimens and greater emphasis on patient confidentiality. Efforts must be made to help women overcome barriers that reduce adherence, such as financial logistical challenges, social stigma and women's fear of violence.AIDS Care 12/2013; DOI:10.1080/09540121.2013.869539 · 1.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Encouraging male partners to accompany women to antenatal care (ANC) is an important first step in engaging men on maternal and newborn health. However, little is known regarding the impact of male partner antenatal accompaniment beyond HIV-related perinatal outcomes. A systematic review was conducted to synthesize the evidence on the influence of male accompaniment on non-HIV outcomes during pregnancy and into the postpartum period. Eligible studies were published in English from 2003 to 2013 and evaluated the effect of male antenatal accompaniment on perinatal health in a developing country. Four electronic databases and selected reference lists were searched. Out of 84 potential citations retrieved, seven publications were retained for the assessment of male antenatal accompaniment's influence using iterative thematic analysis. During pregnancy, male antenatal accompaniment positively impacted women's knowledge of danger signs, but did not affect birth preparedness, ANC utilization, or miscarriages. During labor and delivery, men's ANC presence was associated with increases in institutional delivery and skilled birth attendance, but with no effect for birth-related outcomes. During the early postnatal period, male antenatal accompaniment was associated with higher uptake of postnatal services, but with mixed effects on breastfeeding and newborn survival. Couples' increased communication on pregnancy care and men's subsequent motivation to ensure safe delivery may explain these observed benefits. Inadequate communication, late accompaniment, or partner type may explain the lack of influence on some outcomes. More efforts are needed to expand the implementation and evaluation of male involvement strategies to improve perinatal health.Maternal and Child Health Journal 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10995-015-1713-2 · 2.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite expansive scale-up of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV services in Kenya over the last decade, Kenya remains one of the countries contributing to high numbers of children living with HIV globally and is among the 22 PMTCT global plan priority countries. Using structured and in-depth interviews this study examined enabling factors that enhance utilization of and adherence to PMTCT services in an urban setting in Kenya. HIV-positive birthmothers (N = 55) whose infants were HIV-negative at the time of the study completed a structured interview and a subset (n = 15) participated in in-depth interviews. The majority of the mothers (98 %) delivered at a health facility and 91 % exclusively breastfed. Further, 91 % attended clinic appointments regularly and 69.1 % strictly adhered to prescribed medication dosage and schedules. However, 18 % had not disclosed their HIV status to anybody, 27 % did not use condom during sex, 95 % did not participate in AIDS support groups and 53 % of their male partners were not involved in PMTCT. Four key themes facilitating PMTCT success emerged from the qualitative data: supportive counseling, striving for motherhood, assurance of confidentiality; and confirmation, affirmation and admiration. HIV/AIDS related stigma and gender imbalances create many missed opportunities for HIV-positive mothers to reach out for support from family and community, apply acquired knowledge and access more affordable care. To be successful, PMTCT programs should be aware of these factors and ensure that mothers are provided with culturally competent care.AIDS and Behavior 11/2014; DOI:10.1007/s10461-014-0939-0 · 3.49 Impact Factor