Elevated vascular endothelial growth factor is correlated with elevated erythropoietin in stable, young cystic fibrosis patients.
ABSTRACT Angiogenesis is an important mechanism of airway remodeling in lung disease. We previously demonstrated that serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is elevated in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and declines with therapy for pulmonary exacerbation. We hypothesized that VEGF is elevated early in the course of CF and is associated with markers of tissue hypoxia. A prospective, single-visit evaluation of thirty stable infants and children with CF was performed. Serum was analyzed for VEGF and for other markers of tissue hypoxia (erythropoietin (EPO), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1)) and for inflammatory mediators (IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)) using Meso Scale multi-spot serum immunoassays. Measurements were correlated between assay groups; and with age in months and pulmonary function (FEV0.5 or FEV1). VEGF, EPO, TNFα and IL-8 were elevated compared to published normative values. VEGF levels were not significantly correlated with any inflammatory mediators. However, VEGF correlated with EPO (r=0.505; P<0.05). There was no correlation between lung function and markers of inflammation or tissue hypoxia. VEGF is elevated in young, stable infants and children suggesting angiogenesis as a contributing mechanism for early lung disease in CF. VEGF elevation does not show significant correlation with inflammatory mediators known to be increased in CF, but is significantly correlated with EPO levels. We propose that VEGF elevation and angiogenesis contribute to early lung disease and may result from a direct tissue hypoxia pathway in CF.
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ABSTRACT: Cystic fibrosis is a common genetic disorder characterized by a severe lung inflammation and fibrosis leading to the patient's death. Enhanced angiogenesis in cystic fibrosis (CF) tissue has been suggested, probably caused by the process of inflammation, as similarly described in asthma and chronic bronchitis. The present study demonstrates an intrinsic pro-angiogenic status of cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells. Microarray experiments showed that CF airway epithelial cells expressed several angiogenic factors such as VEGF-A, VEGF-C, bFGF, and PLGF at higher levels than control cells. These data were confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR and, at the protein level, by ELISA. Conditioned media of these cystic fibrosis cells were able to induce proliferation, migration and sprouting of cultured primary endothelial cells. This report describes for the first time that cystic fibrosis epithelial cells have an intrinsic angiogenic activity. Since excess of angiogenesis is correlated with more severe pulmonary disease, our results could lead to the development of new therapeutic applications.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 06/2007; 356(3):745-9. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The promise of newborn screening (NBS) for cystic fibrosis (CF) has not been fully realized, and the extent of improvement in respiratory outcomes is unclear. We hypothesized that significant lung disease was present at diagnosis. To determine the extent of lung disease in a geographically defined population of infants with CF diagnosed after detection by NBS. Fifty-seven infants (median age, 3.6 mo) with CF underwent bronchoalveolar lavage and chest computed tomography (CT) using a three-slice inspiratory and expiratory protocol. Despite the absence of respiratory symptoms in 48 (84.2%) of infants, a substantial proportion had lung disease with bacterial infection detected in 12 (21.1%), including Staphylococcus aureus (n = 4) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 3); neutrophilic inflammation (41. 4 x 10(3) cells/ml representing 18.7% of total cell count); proinflammatory cytokines, with 44 (77.2%) having detectable IL-8; and 17 (29.8%) having detectable free neutrophil elastase activity. Inflammation was increased in those with infection and respiratory symptoms; however, the majority of those infected were asymptomatic. Radiologic evidence of structural lung disease was common, with 46 (80.7%) having an abnormal CT; 11 (18.6%) had bronchial dilatation, 27 (45.0%) had bronchial wall thickening, and 40 (66.7%) had gas trapping. On multivariate analysis, free neutrophil elastase activity was associated with structural lung disease. Most children with structural lung disease had no clinically apparent lung disease. These data support the need for full evaluation in infancy and argue for new treatment strategies, especially those targeting neutrophilic inflammation, if the promise of NBS for CF is to be realized.American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 05/2009; 180(2):146-52. · 11.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent mediator of angiogenesis which has multiple effects in lung development and physiology. VEGF is expressed in several parts of the lung and the pleura while it has been shown that changes in its expression play a significant role in the pathophysiology of some of the most common respiratory disorders, such as acute lung injury, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, obstructive sleep apnea, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, pleural disease, and lung cancer. However, the exact role of VEGF in the lung is not clear yet, as there is contradictory evidence that suggests either a protective or a harmful role. VEGF seems to interfere in a different manner, depending on its amount, the location, and the underlying pathologic process in lung tissue. The lack of VEGF in some disease entities may provide implications for its substitution, whereas its overexpression in other lung disorders has led to interventions for the attenuation of its action. Many efforts have been made in order to regulate the expression of VEGF and anti-VEGF antibodies are already in use for the management of lung cancer. Further research is still needed for the complete understanding of the exact role of VEGF in health and disease, in order to take advantage of its benefits and avoid its adverse effects. The scope of the present review is to summarize from a clinical point of view the changes in VEGF expression in several disorders of the respiratory system and focus on its diagnostic and therapeutic implications.Respiratory research 02/2006; 7:128. · 3.64 Impact Factor