Aseptic loosening of total hip arthroplasty: infection always should be ruled out.
ABSTRACT It is believed that some cases of aseptic failure of THA may be attributable to occult infections. However, it is unclear whether preoperative erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are more likely elevated in these patients than those without overt infection.
We asked whether some patients with aseptic THA failures have abnormal serologic indicators of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) at the time of revision, namely ESR and/or CRP.
Three hundred twenty-three revision THAs for aseptic loosening from 2004 to 2007 were retrospectively evaluated. We categorized all cases into two groups: (1) those with overt PJI (n = 14) plus patients who had a positive intraoperative culture during the index revision (n = 13) and (2) those who did not require rerevision (n = 276) or required surgery for noninfected causes (n = 20). Mean and frequency of abnormal ESR and CRP were compared between the two groups. The minimum followup was 11 months (average, 35 months; range, 11-54 months).
The mean and frequency of abnormal CRP in first group (n = 27) at 2.1 mg/dL and 48% respectively, were greater than those of the uninfected (n = 296) at 1.2 mg/dL and 27%, respectively. However, there were no differences between two groups regarding mean or frequency of abnormal ESR.
Some patients with presumed aseptic loosening may have abnormal serologic indicators of PJI that either have escaped diagnosis or were not adequately investigated. All patients undergoing revision THA should have ESR and CRP measured preoperatively and those with abnormal CRP should have additional evaluations to rule out or confirm PJI.
Article: Is aseptic loosening truly aseptic?[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Surgeons who treat osteomyelitis or infected implants think that microorganisms can live on and around implanted biomaterials and necrotic bone without clinical manifestations of infection. Gristina and Costerton, in their seminal work, suggested that such bacteria persist within biofilms and that they are often overlooked when diagnosis is based on standard microbiologic culture techniques. Subsequent studies using specialized techniques including sonication to remove adherent bacteria and direct detection using various forms of microscopy have confirmed that bacteria are present in many culture-negative cases. This led to the suggestion that at least some cases of failed orthopaedic implants that were considered aseptic loosening based on the absence of clinical signs of infection and the failure to isolate bacteria may actually have an infectious etiology. In addition to biofilms, potentially important concepts that also may contribute to false-negative culture results include the failure to recognize small colony variants induced during growth in vivo and the presence of bacteria inside host cells including osteoblasts. Importantly, bacteria persisting as small colony variants within biofilms and/or inside osteoblasts also may be an explanation for the recurrent nature of musculoskeletal infection.Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 09/2005; · 2.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Periprosthetic joint infection is one of the most challenging complications of joint arthroplasty. We identified current risk factors of periprosthetic joint infection after modern joint arthroplasty, and determined the incidence and timing of periprosthetic joint infection. We reviewed prospectively collected data from our database on 9245 patients undergoing primary hip or knee arthroplasty between January 2001 and April 2006. Periprosthetic joint infections developed in 63 patients (0.7%). Sixty-five percent of periprosthetic joint infections developed within the first year of the index arthroplasty. The infecting organism was isolated in 57 of 63 cases (91%). The most common organisms identified were Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. We identified the following independent predictors for periprosthetic joint infection: higher American Society of Anesthesiologists score, morbid obesity, bilateral arthroplasty, knee arthroplasty, allogenic transfusion, postoperative atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction, urinary tract infection, and longer hospitalization. This study confirmed some previously implicated factors and identified new variables that predispose patients to periprosthetic joint infection. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level II, prognostic study.Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 08/2008; 466(7):1710-5. · 2.53 Impact Factor