Phase-Contrast Magnetic Resonance Angiography Measurements of Global Cerebral Blood Flow in the Neonate

Department of Neonatology, Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, University Medical Center, 3508 AB Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Pediatric Research (Impact Factor: 2.31). 02/2011; 69(6):544-7. DOI: 10.1203/PDR.0b013e3182176aab
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Cerebral blood flow (CBF) alterations are important in pathogenesis of neonatal ischemic/hemorrhagic brain damage. In clinical practice, estimation of neonatal CBF is mostly based on Doppler-measured blood flow velocities in major intracranial arteries. Using phase-contrast magnetic resonance angiography (PC-MRA), global CBF can be estimated, but there is limited neonatal experience. The objective of this study was to gain experience with PC-MRA for the determination of global CBF in neonates. In infants eligible for MRI, PC-MRA global CBF was determined by measuring volume blood flow in both internal carotid arteries (ICAs) and basilar artery (BA). Thirty newborns (GA, 25.7-42.1 wk; weight, 1050-5858 g; postconceptional age, 225-369 d) were investigated. Total PC-MRA CBF ranged from 27 to 186 mL/min. Significant correlations between PC-MRA CBF and postconceptional age and weight were detected. When calculating PC-MRA measured CBF per kilogram body weight, brain perfusion was about stable over the range of postconceptional ages and ranged between 11 and 48 mL/min/kg (median, 25 mL/min/kg). In conclusion, neonatal PC-MRA CBF seems to be a useful technique to estimate noninvasive CBF.

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Available from: Manon J N L Benders, Apr 25, 2014
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    • "Assessments can be performed during natural sleep without the need for anesthesia or sedation,8 and scans can be performed on magnetic resonance systems located within neonatal intensive care units, allowing maintenance of cardiorespiratory and thermal stability even in the most preterm infants.9 PC MRI can assess flow volume in any large vessel.10 Critically, PC MRI is at least twice as repeatable as echocardiography in the preterm population,8 and with improvements in imaging resolution, measures of flow volume can now be quantified to within ±11% to 13%.11 "
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    ABSTRACT: The echocardiographic assessment of circulatory function in sick newborn infants has the potential to improve patient care. However, measurements are prone to error and have not been sufficiently validated. Phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides highly validated measures of blood flow and has recently been applied to the newborn population. The aim of this study was to validate measures of left ventricular output and superior vena caval flow volume in newborn infants. Echocardiographic and MRI assessments were performed within 1 working day of each other in a cohort of newborn infants. Examinations were performed in 49 infants with a median corrected gestational age at scan of 34.43 weeks (range, 27.43-40 weeks) and a median weight at scan of 1,880 g (range, 660-3,760 g). Echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular output showed a strong correlation with MRI assessment (R(2) = 0.83; mean bias, -9.6 mL/kg/min; limits of agreement, -79.6 to +60.0 mL/kg/min; repeatability index, 28.2%). Echocardiographic assessment of superior vena caval flow showed a poor correlation with MRI assessment (R(2) = 0.22; mean bias, -13.7 mL/kg/min; limits of agreement, -89.1 to +61.7 mL/kg/min; repeatability index, 68.0%). Calculating superior vena caval flow volume from an axial area measurement and applying a 50% reduction to stroke distance to compensate for overestimation gave a slightly improved correlation with MRI (R(2) = 0.29; mean bias, 2.6 mL/kg/min; limits of agreement, -53.4 to +58.6 mL/kg/min; repeatability index, 54.5%). Echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular output appears relatively robust in newborn infant. Echocardiographic assessment of superior vena caval flow is of limited accuracy in this population, casting doubt on the utility of the measurement for diagnostic decision making.
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    ABSTRACT: Near-infrared spectroscopy is a noninvasive method for monitoring brain oxygenation. The aim of the study was to investigate differences between cerebral oxygenation in different brain regions in newborns. In a prospective study, we monitored simultaneously left and right frontoparietal and temporo-occipital regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rScO2) and cerebral fractional tissue extraction (cFTOE: (arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) - rScO2)/SaO2) using near-infrared spectroscopy. A 2-h measurement was performed on d 1, 3, and 7. We included 10 very preterm (GA <32 wk), 10 preterm (GA: 32-37 wk), and 10 term (GA ≥37 wk) neonates. Limits of agreement for difference of the measurements between different places were determined using the Bland-Altman method. In all subgroups, the rScO2 and cFTOE values at different regions were not different. Limits of agreement were between ±14 and ±18% for all subgroups. Left-to-right differences were small between different postnatal and GAs. A decrease and increase over time for rScO2 and cFTOE values was detected for all four brain regions, most pronounced for infants with GA <32 wk. Cerebral oxygenation in stable preterm and term neonates seems not to differ between different regions of the brain during the early neonatal period. However, variability of individual measurements was quite high as indicated by large limits of agreement.
    Pediatric Research 06/2011; 70(4):389-94. DOI:10.1203/PDR.0b013e31822a36db · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known about changes in carotid blood flow after perinatal arterial ischemic stroke (PAIS). The aim of this study was to assess the blood flow in the internal carotid arteries (ICAs) after unilateral PAIS. The carotid flow (ml/min) was measured noninvasively by means of two-dimensional phase-contrast magnetic resonance angiography (2D PC-MRA) in 25 full-term infants who had unilateral PAIS within 10 d after birth. In 17 infants a second 2D PC-MRA was carried out at the age of 3 mo. Asymmetry of carotid blood flow was calculated at both time points, and the circle of Willis (CoW) was assessed with a three-dimensional (3D) time-of-flight MRA. On the early magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a significant increase in ipsilateral blood flow was observed (7.7%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.0-14.9%), which persisted after correcting for CoW configuration. At 3 mo, this asymmetry was no longer observed. No relationship was found between the asymmetry in blood flow and either stroke size or postnatal age at scan. A higher blood flow in the ipsilateral ICA was observed during the acute phase after unilateral PAIS, and this disappeared after 3 mo. Further research into the role of hyperperfusion after PAIS may suggest new approaches to neuroprotection.
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