Replication and recombination of herpes simplex virus DNA.
ABSTRACT Replication of herpes simplex virus takes place in the cell nucleus and is carried out by a replisome composed of six viral proteins: the UL30-UL42 DNA polymerase, the UL5-UL8-UL52 helicase-primase, and the UL29 single-stranded DNA-binding protein ICP8. The replisome is loaded on origins of replication by the UL9 initiator origin-binding protein. Virus replication is intimately coupled to recombination and repair, often performed by cellular proteins. Here, we review new significant developments: the three-dimensional structures for the DNA polymerase, the polymerase accessory factor, and the single-stranded DNA-binding protein; the reconstitution of a functional replisome in vitro; the elucidation of the mechanism for activation of origins of DNA replication; the identification of cellular proteins actively involved in or responding to viral DNA replication; and the elucidation of requirements for formation of replication foci in the nucleus and effects on protein localization.
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ABSTRACT: Homologous recombination is an important biological process that facilitates genome rearrangement and repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The induction of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lytic replication induces ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)-dependent DNA damage checkpoint signaling, leading to the clustering of phosphorylated ATM and Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 (MRN) complexes to sites of viral genome synthesis in nuclei. Here we report that homologous recombinational repair (HRR) factors such as replication protein A (RPA), Rad51, and Rad52 as well as MRN complexes are recruited and loaded onto the newly synthesized viral genome in replication compartments. The 32-kDa subunit of RPA is extensively phosphorylated at sites in accordance with those with ATM. The hyperphosphorylation of RPA32 causes a change in RPA conformation, resulting in a switch from the catalysis of DNA replication to the participation in DNA repair. The levels of Rad51 and phosphorylated RPA were found to increase with the progression of viral productive replication, while that of Rad52 proved constant. Furthermore, biochemical fractionation revealed increases in levels of DNA-bound forms of these HRRs. Bromodeoxyuridine-labeled chromatin immunoprecipitation and PCR analyses confirmed the loading of RPA, Rad 51, Rad52, and Mre11 onto newly synthesized viral DNA, and terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling analysis demonstrated DSBs in the EBV replication compartments. HRR factors might be recruited to repair DSBs on the viral genome in viral replication compartments. RNA interference knockdown of RPA32 and Rad51 prevented viral DNA synthesis remarkably, suggesting that homologous recombination and/or repair of viral DNA genome might occur, coupled with DNA replication to facilitate viral genome synthesis.Journal of Virology 05/2009; 83(13):6641-51. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We utilized templates of defined sequence to investigate the fidelity and mechanism of NTP misincorporation by DNA primase from herpes simplex virus-1. Herpes primase generated a wide range of mismatches during primer synthesis, including purine-purine, pyrimidine-pyrimidine, and purine-pyrimidine mismatches, and could even polymerize consecutive incorrect NTPs. Polymerization of noncognate NTPs resulted from primase misreading the template, as opposed to a primer slippage or dislocation mutagenesis mechanism. Primase did not efficiently misincorporate NTPs during the initiation reaction (i.e., dinucleotide synthesis). However, during primer elongation (after dinucleotide formation), herpes primase was extraordinarily inaccurate. It misincorporated NTPs at frequencies as high as 1 in 7, although frequencies of 1 in 25 to 1 in 60 were more common. In every case, however, misincorporation frequencies were no less than 1 in 100. For a specific mismatch, the DNA sequences flanking the site where misincorporation occurred could influence the frequency of misincorporation. This remarkably low level of fidelity is as low as that observed for the least accurate members of the Y class DNA polymerases involved in lesion bypass. Thus, herpes primase is one of the least accurate nucleotide polymerizing enzymes known.Biochemistry 08/2004; 43(28):9084-91. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) DNA is associated with a high degree of homologous recombination. While cellular enzymes may take part in mediating this recombination, we present evidence for an HSV-1-encoded recombinase activity. HSV-1 alkaline nuclease, encoded by the UL12 gene, is a 5'-->3' exonuclease that shares homology with Redalpha, commonly known as lambda exonuclease, an exonuclease required for homologous recombination by bacteriophage lambda. The HSV-1 single-stranded DNA binding protein ICP8 is an essential protein for HSV DNA replication and possesses single-stranded DNA annealing activities like the Redbeta synaptase component of the phage lambda recombinase. Here we show that UL12 and ICP8 work together to effect strand exchange much like the Red system of lambda. Purified UL12 protein and ICP8 mediated the complete exchange between a 7.25-kb M13mp18 linear double-stranded DNA molecule and circular single-stranded M13 DNA, forming a gapped circle and a displaced strand as final products. The optimal conditions for strand exchange were 1 mM MgCl(2), 40 mM NaCl, and pH 7.5. Stoichiometric amounts of ICP8 were required, and strand exchange did not depend on the nature of the double-stranded end. Nuclease-defective UL12 could not support this reaction. These data suggest that diverse DNA viruses appear to utilize an evolutionarily conserved recombination mechanism.Journal of Virology 07/2003; 77(13):7425-33. · 5.08 Impact Factor