Replication and Recombination of Herpes Simplex Virus DNA
ABSTRACT Replication of herpes simplex virus takes place in the cell nucleus and is carried out by a replisome composed of six viral proteins: the UL30-UL42 DNA polymerase, the UL5-UL8-UL52 helicase-primase, and the UL29 single-stranded DNA-binding protein ICP8. The replisome is loaded on origins of replication by the UL9 initiator origin-binding protein. Virus replication is intimately coupled to recombination and repair, often performed by cellular proteins. Here, we review new significant developments: the three-dimensional structures for the DNA polymerase, the polymerase accessory factor, and the single-stranded DNA-binding protein; the reconstitution of a functional replisome in vitro; the elucidation of the mechanism for activation of origins of DNA replication; the identification of cellular proteins actively involved in or responding to viral DNA replication; and the elucidation of requirements for formation of replication foci in the nucleus and effects on protein localization.
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ABSTRACT: Baculoviruses were first identified as insect-specific pathogens, and it was this specificity that lead to their use as safe, target specific biological pesticides. For the past 30 years, AcMNPV has served as the subject of intense basic molecular research into the baculovirus infectious cycle including the interaction of the virus with a continuous insect cell line derived from Spodoptera frugiperda. The studies on baculoviruese have led to an in-depth understanding of the physical organization of the viral genomes including many complete genomic sequences, the time course of gene expression, and the application of this basic research to the use of baculoviruses not only as insecticides, but also as a universal eukaryotic protein expression system, and a potential vector in gene therapy. A great deal has also been discovered about the viral genes required for the replication of the baculovirus genome, while much remains to be learned about the mechanism of viral DNA replication. This report outlines the current knowledge of the factors involved in baculovirus DNA replication, using data on AcMNPV as a model for most members of the Baculoviridae.Virologica Sinica 08/2009; 24(4):243-267. DOI:10.1007/s12250-009-3047-y