Perioperative posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in 2 pediatric neurosurgery patients with brainstem ependymoma Report of 2 cases
ABSTRACT Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) has been described in pediatric neurooncology patients, although it has not been documented perioperatively in pediatric neurosurgery patients not actively receiving chemotherapy. Recently at the authors' facility, 2 cases of PRES were diagnosed perioperatively in children with brainstem ependymoma. Both patients had presented with hypertension, altered mental status, and seizures and demonstrated MR imaging features consistent with PRES. The patients were treated with antiseizure and antihypertension medications, leading to improvement in both clinical symptoms and neuroimaging findings. These cases are the first to document PRES in perioperative pediatric neurosurgery patients not actively receiving chemotherapy. Both patients had ependymoma involving the brainstem, which may have led to intra- and perioperative hemodynamic instability (including hypertension) and predisposed them to this syndrome. An awareness of PRES in similar scenarios will aid in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric neurosurgery patients with this syndrome.
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ABSTRACT: Stroke-like migraine attacks after radiation therapy (SMART syndrome) is a recently described clinical entity characterized by transient hemispheric dysfunction manifesting as, but not limited to: visuospatial deficits, confusion, hemisensory deficits, hemiparesis, aphasia, seizures and most prominently headache, in patients with a history of remote external beam radiation therapy to the brain (2). The radiographic hallmark on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the presence of transient, diffuse, unilateral gadolinium enhancement of the cortex with white matter sparing, usually corresponding to the previous radiation field (3). We present a case of SMART syndrome diagnosed immediately following a craniotomy and temporal lobectomy for recurrent metastatic tumor resection after prior gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) and whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT).World Neurosurgery 01/2013; 82(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.wneu.2013.01.028 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a neurotoxic encephalopathic state associated with reversible cerebral vasogenic edema. It is an increasingly recognized occurrence in the oncology population. However, it is very uncommon in patients with primary brain tumors (PBTs). The aim of this study was to analyze the clinicoradiological features and report the clinical outcomes of PRES in PBT patients. We identified 4 cases with PBT who developed PRES at MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC) between 2012 and 2014. Clinical and radiological data were abstracted from their records. In addition, we also solicited 8 cases from the literature. The median age at PRES onset was 19 years, male-to-female ratio was 1:1, and the syndrome occurred in patients with ependymoma (n = 4), glioblastoma (n = 3), diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG; n = 3), juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (n = 1), and atypical meningioma (n = 1). Two glioblastomas and 2 DIPG cases received bevacizumab and vandetanib before the onset of symptoms, respectively. The most common clinical presentation was seizures (n = 7). Three MDACC patients recovered completely in 3-4 weeks after the onset of symptoms. One patient died due to active cancer and several comorbidities including PRES. Hypertension seems to be the most important coexisting risk factor for development of PRES; however, the potential effects of chemotherapeutic agents in the pathogenesis of PRES should also be examined. The clinicoradiological course of PRES in PBT patients did not vary from the classical descriptions of PRES found in other causes. PRES must be considered as part of the differential diagnosis in patients with PBTs presenting with seizures or acute encephalopathy.12/2014; 1(4):184-190. DOI:10.1093/nop/npu024