Perioperative posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in 2 pediatric neurosurgery patients with brainstem ependymoma Report of 2 cases
Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University Hospital and Clinics, Stanford, California 94305-5327, USA. Journal of Neurosurgery Pediatrics
(Impact Factor: 1.48).
03/2011; 7(3):235-7. DOI: 10.3171/2010.12.PEDS10299
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) has been described in pediatric neurooncology patients, although it has not been documented perioperatively in pediatric neurosurgery patients not actively receiving chemotherapy. Recently at the authors' facility, 2 cases of PRES were diagnosed perioperatively in children with brainstem ependymoma. Both patients had presented with hypertension, altered mental status, and seizures and demonstrated MR imaging features consistent with PRES. The patients were treated with antiseizure and antihypertension medications, leading to improvement in both clinical symptoms and neuroimaging findings. These cases are the first to document PRES in perioperative pediatric neurosurgery patients not actively receiving chemotherapy. Both patients had ependymoma involving the brainstem, which may have led to intra- and perioperative hemodynamic instability (including hypertension) and predisposed them to this syndrome. An awareness of PRES in similar scenarios will aid in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric neurosurgery patients with this syndrome.
Available from: Patrick Maloney
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Strokelike migraine attack after radiation therapy is a recently described clinical entity characterized by transient hemispheric dysfunction manifesting as, but not limited to, visuospatial deficits, confusion, hemisensory deficits, hemiparesis, aphasia, seizures, and, most prominently, headache in patients with a history of remote external beam radiation therapy to the brain. The radiographic hallmark on magnetic resonance imaging is the presence of transient, diffuse, unilateral gadolinium enhancement of the cortex with white matter sparing, usually corresponding to the previous radiation field.
We present a case of strokelike migraine attacks after radiation therapy syndrome diagnosed immediately following a craniotomy and temporal lobectomy for recurrent metastatic tumor resection after prior gamma knife radiosurgery and whole-brain radiation therapy.
SMART syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis of postsurgical patients with remote history of cranial irradiation and significant, new transient neurologic deficits not explainable by any other mechanism. It is possible that manipulation of the trigeminal ganglion, or the dura of the Meckel cave, contributed to triggering the manifestations of this syndrome in our patient during the immediate postoperative period.
World Neurosurgery 01/2013; 82(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.wneu.2013.01.028 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a neurotoxic encephalopathic state associated with reversible cerebral vasogenic edema. It is an increasingly recognized occurrence in the oncology population. However, it is very uncommon in patients with primary brain tumors (PBTs). The aim of this study was to analyze the clinicoradiological features and report the clinical outcomes of PRES in PBT patients.
We identified 4 cases with PBT who developed PRES at MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC) between 2012 and 2014. Clinical and radiological data were abstracted from their records. In addition, we also solicited 8 cases from the literature.
The median age at PRES onset was 19 years, male-to-female ratio was 1:1, and the syndrome occurred in patients with ependymoma (n = 4), glioblastoma (n = 3), diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG; n = 3), juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (n = 1), and atypical meningioma (n = 1). Two glioblastomas and 2 DIPG cases received bevacizumab and vandetanib before the onset of symptoms, respectively. The most common clinical presentation was seizures (n = 7). Three MDACC patients recovered completely in 3-4 weeks after the onset of symptoms. One patient died due to active cancer and several comorbidities including PRES.
Hypertension seems to be the most important coexisting risk factor for development of PRES; however, the potential effects of chemotherapeutic agents in the pathogenesis of PRES should also be examined. The clinicoradiological course of PRES in PBT patients did not vary from the classical descriptions of PRES found in other causes. PRES must be considered as part of the differential diagnosis in patients with PBTs presenting with seizures or acute encephalopathy.
12/2014; 1(4):184-190. DOI:10.1093/nop/npu024
Available from: Jordi A Matias-Guiu
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ABSTRACT: Posterior reversible encephalopathy (PRE) is a clinical and radiological entity that is typically characterized by headache, visual disturbances and seizures associated with cortical and subcortical reversible vasogenic edema in neuroimaging.
To present a review of the pathophysiology of this entity, and also the associations of the PRE described in the literature.
Given its clinical presentation, often nonspecific and variable, magnetic resonance imaging is essential for diagnosis. There are a number of well-known triggers, such as hypertensive crisis, eclampsia or certain drugs. The description of increasingly atypical cases from clinical and radiological point of view, and possible new triggers, requires a redefinition of this entity.
The PRE is a set of clinical and radiological manifestations that may not be framed within the word 'syndrome'. Although, the PRE has been reported in some cases irreversible, reversibility concept should be maintained in the definition of this entity, since in most cases the rapid control of the triggering condition allows reversibility of the lesions.
Revista de neurologia 07/2015; 61(2):75-84. · 0.83 Impact Factor
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