The World of Organic Agriculture - Statistics and Emerging Trends 2009

Source: OAI

ABSTRACT The 2009 edition of this annual publication documents recent developments in global organic agriculture. It includes contributions from representatives of the organic sector from throughout the world and provides comprehensive organic farming statistics that cover surface area under organic management, numbers of farms and specific information about commodities and land use in organic systems. The book also contains information on the global market of the burgeoning organic sector, the latest developments in organic certification, standards and regulations, and insights into current status and emerging trends for organic agriculture by continent.

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    • "Beyond contributing to the understanding of arthropod-plant interactions, the study of allelochemicals is a contemporary approach to the selection of new biopesticides that meet the requirements of efficacy, safety, and selectivity (Guerrero et al., 2014). The use of botanical products (biopesticides) in pest management has significantly expanded (Isman and Grieneisen, 2014), particularly in ecologically based agricultural production systems whose market has grown considerably in recent years worldwide (Willer and Kilcher, 2009). However, to employ such technology, additional studies are required to elucidate aspects related to the chemical composition of these derivatives and their toxicity to non-target organisms, as well as the establishment of more appropriate formulations and more effective quality control (Isman et al., 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Annonaceae species are interesting sources of structurally diverse compounds with insecticidal properties. Therefore, a screening assay was conducted on ethanolic extracts prepared from the leaves, branches, and seeds of different Annonaceae species (Annona cacans Warming, Annona montana Macfadyen, Annona mucosa Jacquin, Annona reticulata Linnaeus, Annona sylvatica A. St.-Hil., and Duguetia lanceolata A. St.-Hil.) to detect promising sources of compounds with action against Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The ethanolic extract from A. mucosa seeds (ESAM) was the most active treatment, causing significant acute toxicity (LC50=842.9mgkg-1) and pronounced larval growth inhibition (EC50=580.4mgkg-1) after 7 days of exposure to an ESAM-treated diet. Furthermore, ethanolic extracts (at 1000mgkg-1) from seeds of A. cacans, A. montana, A. mucosa, and A. sylvatica; leaves and branches of A. reticulata; and D. lanceolata leaves only caused sublethal effects, reducing the S. frugiperda larval weight. Nevertheless, ESAM (at LC90) showed an efficacy similar to that of two commercial insecticides of natural [azadirachtin+3-tigloylazadirachtol (Azamax® 1.2 EC)] and synthetic [chlorantraniliprole (Premio® 20 SC)] origins, which were tested at the registered concentration for S. frugiperda control. Thus, using different chromatographic techniques, bioguided fractionations were conducted and led to the isolation of acetogenin bis-tetrahydrofuran rolliniastatin-1, which was identified as the primary compound from the most active fractions of ESAM. This compound, which caused both strong mortality and pronounced growth inhibition to S. frugiperda, may be a useful component for the integrated management of this important pest species.
    Industrial Crops and Products 11/2015; 74:969-976. DOI:10.1016/j.indcrop.2015.05.058 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    • "Willer et al. 2013). Across Africa, there are slightly more than one million hectares of certified organic agricultural land (Willer et al. 2013) – approximately 3% of the world's organic agricultural land. This roughly represents 0.1% of total agricultural land in Africa. "
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    • "According to recent data by IFOAM (Willer and Kilcher, 2011) there are 37.2 million hectares of organic agricultural land (including in-conversion areas). The regions with the largest areas of organic agricultural land are Oceania (12.2 million hectares – 32.8 percent), Europe (9.3 million hectares – 25 percent), and Latin America (8.6 million hectares – 23.1 percent). "
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