Association of a Functional IRF7 Variant With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

University of California, Los Angeles, and Joint Molecular Rheumatology Laboratory of Institute of Health Sciences and Shanghai Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.
Arthritis & Rheumatology (Impact Factor: 7.76). 03/2011; 63(3):749-54. DOI: 10.1002/art.30193
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A previous genome-wide association study conducted in a population of European ancestry identified rs4963128, a KIAA1542 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 23 kb telomeric to IRF7 (the gene for interferon regulatory factor 7 [IRF-7]), to be strongly associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This study was undertaken to investigate whether genetic polymorphism within IRF7 is a risk factor for the development of SLE.
We genotyped one KIAA1542 SNP (rs4963128) and one IRF7 SNP (rs1131665 [Q412R]) in an Asian population (1,302 cases, 1,479 controls), to assess their association with SLE. Subsequently, rs1131665 was further genotyped in independent panels of Chinese subjects (528 cases, 527 controls), European American subjects (446 cases, 461 controls), and African American subjects (159 cases, 115 controls) by TaqMan genotyping assay, to seek confirmation of association in various ethnic groups. A luciferase reporter assay was used to assess the effect of Q412R polymorphism on the activation of IRF-7.
Consistent association of rs1131665 (Q412R) with SLE was identified in Asian, European American, and African American populations (total 2,435 cases and 2,582 controls) (P(meta) = 6.18 × 10(-6) , odds ratio 1.42 [95% confidence interval 1.22-1.65]). Expression of the IRF7 412Q risk allele resulted in a 2-fold increase in interferon-stimulated response element transcriptional activity compared with expression of IRF7 412R (P = 0.0003), suggesting that IRF7 412Q confers elevated IRF-7 activity and may therefore affect a downstream interferon pathway.
These findings show that the major allele of a nonsynonymous SNP, rs1131665 (412Q) in IRF7, confers elevated activation of IRF-7 and predisposes to the development of SLE in multiple ethnic groups. This result provides direct genetic evidence that IRF7 may be a risk gene for human SLE.

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Available from: Joel M Guthridge, Jul 03, 2014
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    • "All aSLE samples were from patients who consented to share samples for other SLE research and were seen by physicians in the UCLA Division of Rheumatology-Medicine (n = 23). All adult control samples (n = 40) were enrolled in the UCLA SLE genetics study, and were matched for age and gender with the adult SLE samples [42]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Osteopontin (OPN) has been implicated as a mediator of Th17 regulation via type I interferon (IFN) receptor signaling and in macrophage activity at sites of tissue repair. This study assessed whether increased circulating plasma OPN (cOPN) precedes development of organ damage in pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus (pSLE) and compared it to circulating plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (cNGAL), a predictor of increased SLE disease activity. Methods cOPN and cNGAL were measured in prospectively followed pSLE (n = 42) and adult SLE (aSLE; n = 23) patients and age-matched controls. Time-adjusted cumulative disease activity and disease damage were respectively assessed using adjusted-mean SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) (AMS) and SLICC/ACR damage index (SDI). Results Compared to controls, elevated cOPN and cNGAL were observed in pSLE and aSLE. cNGAL preceded worsening SLEDAI by 3-6 months (P = 0.04), but was not associated with increased 6-month AMS. High baseline cOPN, which was associated with high IFNalpha activity and expression of autoantibodies to nucleic acids, positively correlated with 6-month AMS (r = 0.51 and 0.52, P = 0.001 and 0.01 in pSLE and aSLE, respectively) and was associated with SDI increase at 12 months in pSLE (P = 0.001). Risk factors for change in SDI in pSLE were cOPN (OR 7.5, 95% CI [2.9-20], P = 0.03), but not cNGAL, cumulative prednisone, disease duration, immunosuppression use, gender or ancestry using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. The area under the curve (AUC) when generating the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) of baseline cOPN sensitivity and specificity for the indication of SLE patients with an increase of SDI over a 12 month period is 0.543 (95% CI 0.347-0.738; positive predictive value 95% and negative predictive value 38%). Conclusion High circulating OPN levels preceded increased cumulative disease activity and organ damage in SLE patients, especially in pSLE, and its value as a predictor of poor outcome should be further validated in large longitudinal cohorts.
    Arthritis research & therapy 01/2013; 15(1):R18. DOI:10.1186/ar4150 · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    • "In keeping with this, SNP rs4963128 was correlated with nephritis and anti-Ro/anti-La autoantibodies in a Chinese population, although no association of this SNP with lupus susceptibility was observed in this genetic background [39]. To date, the only known functional polymorphism in IRF7 is the nonsynonymous SNP rs1131665 which encodes a protein carrying a Q to R mutation at position 412 [30]. This variant has been shown to be associated with SLE patients of Asian and European American ancestry (P = 6.18 × 10−6), and functional analysis of the mutated protein revealed its enhanced transcriptional activation of an ISRE-dependent promoter. "
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic studies in the last 5 years have greatly facilitated our understanding of how the dysregulation of diverse components of the innate immune system contributes to pathophysiology of SLE. A role for macrophages in the pathogenesis of SLE was first proposed as early as the 1980s following the discovery that SLE macrophages were defective in their ability to clear apoptotic cell debris, thus prolonging exposure of potential autoantigens to the adaptive immune response. More recently, there is an emerging appreciation of the contribution both monocytes and macrophages play in orchestrating immune responses with perturbations in their activation or regulation leading to immune dysregulation. This paper will focus on understanding the relevance of genes identified as being associated with innate immune function of monocytes and macrophages and development of SLE, particularly with respect to their role in (1) immune complex (IC) recognition and clearance, (2) nucleic acid recognition via toll-like receptors (TLRs) and downstream signalling, and (3) interferon signalling. Particular attention will be paid to the functional consequences these genetic associations have for disease susceptibility or pathogenesis.
    Clinical and Developmental Immunology 10/2012; 2012(4):582352. DOI:10.1155/2012/582352 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    • "TLR7 is associated with lupus progression [23], [24], [25], [26]. In addition, the downstream signaling components of TLR7, IFN regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) and IRF7, are closely associated with lupus pathogenesis [27], [28], [29], [30], [31], [32]. Recognition of self-nucleic acids by TLR7 and TLR9 on plasmacytoid dendritic cells is considered to be a key steps in IFN production in lupus and correlated with the severity of disease [33], [34]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus. Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) is involved in host innate immunity against pathogens, and its aberrant activation is linked to the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, also called "lupus"). Type I interferons (IFN) are apparently driving forces for lupus pathogenesis. Previously, we found that EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) primes cells for IFN production. In this report, the relationship among EBV LMP1, TLRs, and IFN production are examined. We find that TLR7 activation increases the expression of EBV LMP1, and IFN regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) is involved in the stimulation process. TLR7 activation did not induce IFNs from EBV-infected cells, but potentiates those cells for IFN production by TLR3 or TLR9 activation. In addition, we find that LMP1 and IFNs are co-expressed in the same cells in some lupus patients. Therefore, the aberrant activation of TLR7 might induce LMP1 expression and LMP1-expression cells may be producing IFNs in lupus patients. These results suggest EBV might be an exacerbating factor in some lupus patients via promoting IFN production.
    PLoS ONE 08/2012; 7(8):e43317. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0043317 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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