Number of different purging behaviors used among women with eating disorders: psychological, behavioral, self-efficacy and quality of life outcomes.

Park Nicollet Melrose Institute, St Louis Park, Minnesota, USA.
Eating disorders 03/2011; 19(2):156-74. DOI: 10.1080/10640266.2010.511909
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to examine differences between a number of different purging behaviors used and outcome measures among eating disorder patients. Among 211 females who received inpatient or partial hospitalization eating disorder treatment, analyses of covariance and cross-tabulations identified associations among a number of different purging behaviors (vomiting, laxative use, diuretic use) used and psychological, behavioral, self-efficacy and quality of life measures at follow-up. Most patients (80.1%) reported purging for weight control. Use of different purging behaviors was significantly associated at follow-up with lower self-esteem, greater depression, higher state and trait anxiety, higher BMI, poorer self-efficacy for normative eating and body image, compromised quality of life, greater dietary restraint, and eating, shape and weight concerns. Furthermore, a higher percentage of those who used purging behaviors met criteria for a subthreshold or threshold eating disorder at follow-up compared to their non-purging peers. Eating disorder patients who use different purging behaviors are more compromised at follow-up than patients who do not purge. Due to the severe medical complications associated with different purging behaviors, future research should address best practices for clinical intervention and prevention.

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    ABSTRACT: Background The comorbidity of purging behaviours, such as vomiting, inappropriate use of laxatives, diuretics or slimming medications, has been examined in literature. However, most studies do not include adolescents, individuals who purge in the absence of binge eating, or those purging at subclinical frequency. This study examines the prevalence of purging among 16-year-old girls across three countries and their association with substance use and psychological comorbidity. Methods Data were obtained by questionnaire in 3 population-based cohorts (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), United Kingdom, n = 1,608; Growing Up Today Study (GUTS), USA, n = 3,504; North Finland Birth Cohort (NFBC85/86), Finland, n = 2,306). Multivariate logistic regressions were employed to estimate associations between purging and outcomes. Four models were fit adjusting for binge eating and potential confounders of these associations. Results In ALSPAC, 9.7% of girls reported purging in the 12-months prior to assessment, 7.3% in GUTS, and 3.5% in NFBC. In all 3 cohorts, purging was associated with adverse outcomes such as binge drinking (ALSPAC: odds ratio (OR) = 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.4–2.9; GUTS: OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.5–4.0; NFBC: OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.0–2.8), drug use (ALSPAC: OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.8–4.7; GUTS: OR = 4.5, 95% CI = 2.8–7.3; NFBC: OR = 4.1, 95% CI = 2.6–6.6), depressive symptoms in ALSPAC (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.5–3.1) and GUTS(OR = 3.7, 95% CI = 2.2–6.3), and several psychopathology measures including clinical anxiety/depression in NFBC (OR = 11.2, 95% CI = 3.9, 31.7). Conclusions Results show a higher prevalence of purging behaviours among girls in the United Kingdom compared to those in the United States and Finland. Our findings support evidence highlighting that purging in adolescence is associated with negative outcomes, independent of its frequency and binge eating.
    Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 06/2014; 56(1). DOI:10.1111/jcpp.12283 · 5.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This case report describes five independent cases of children and adolescents assessed for eating disorders who disclosed using the Heimlich maneuver as a purging technique. The maneuver is meant to be used only in life or death situations, likely once or less in any person's lifetime. A child or adolescent with an eating disorder may be using it to self-induce vomiting on a daily basis, increasing the risk of complications, including potential damage to major organs of the body. Asking patients who purge to elaborate on the methods with which they purge can provide clinicians with fuller information, improving their ability to select appropriate medical tests and interventions. Thorough investigations of physical complaints during the patient assessment may be warranted, including examining patients for possible rib fractures, hemorrhages, perforations of the hollow viscous, and other forms of blunt abdominal traumas. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2015). © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    International Journal of Eating Disorders 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/eat.22408 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Body dissatisfaction is present in a majority of women without eating disorders (EDs), and almost all women with EDs. We compared body dissatisfaction in women with and without EDs to determine at which BMI women are content with their weight, and to determine if body dissatisfaction is affected by the presence of purging behaviours. Methods We assessed women, age 18 to 55 with an ED (N = 431) and without an ED (N = 719) using the discrepancy between their current and desired BMI. This measure of body weight dissatisfaction (BWD) has been validated as being representative of overall body dissatisfaction. We also measured perceptions of (ii) body appearance and (iii) body image to confirm our results. Results Women with and without EDs wished to lose weight until very low weights were achieved (BMI 15-16kg/m2 and BMI 18-19kg/m2 respectively). BWD is higher in women with EDs (median 1.77, IQR 0-4.61) than women without EDs (median 0.85, IQR 0-1.80, p < 0.001). Purging behaviours in women with EDs was associated with lower BMIs to achieve body satisfaction (BMI 15-16kg/m2) than women who did not purge (16-17kg/m2). Conclusions Body weight dissatisfaction is highly prevalent among women with and without EDs. Understanding body weight dissatisfaction in women with EDs and its association with purging may assist in the prevention, detection and treatment of these disorders. Women with EDs should be informed that body weight dissatisfaction will not resolve with the cessation of their disorder, as it is prevalent within the general population.
    Eating Behaviors 08/2014; 15(3). DOI:10.1016/j.eatbeh.2014.06.014 · 1.58 Impact Factor


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Nov 28, 2014