Treatment Results of Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa in a Residential Treatment Program

Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA.
Eating disorders (Impact Factor: 1.48). 03/2011; 19(2):117-31. DOI: 10.1080/10640266.2011.551629
Source: PubMed


Data on the effectiveness of residential treatment for patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are limited. We analyzed patient survey results at admission and discharge from Monte Nido Residential Treatment Program. Of 287 consecutive admissions, 80% (231) "graduated" (completed ≥ 30 days of treatment), and of these (all of whom gave consent), only patients with AN (N = 120) or BN (N = 95) were included (215 of 231, 93%) in this study. Analyses included a comparison of admission vs. discharge variables (paired t-tests) for each diagnosis. At each assessment, graduates completed the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and a structured eating disorder assessment questionnaire. For patients with AN, there were statistically significant improvements in mean BMI. In addition, for both AN and BN patients, there were statistically significant improvements in BDI scores, all 11 EDI-2 subscales, and frequencies of bingeing, vomiting, laxative abuse, chewing and spitting, stimulant abuse, and restricting behavior. The great majority of patients completing treatment showed significant improvement at discharge from intensive residential treatment.

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    • "In-patient care will always be necessary for some individuals, but questions about when it is necessary and for whom it is most effective are rarely addressed. In-patient services reporting favourable outcomes often exclude from their data drop-outs or more resistant patients.7,8 Local experience over 25 years suggested that many patients failed to make a sustainable recovery with in-patient admissions and some deteriorated. "
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    ABSTRACT: Aims and method A community intensive treatment service for severe anorexia nervosa is described. The service is multidisciplinary but driven by a focus on psychological formulation. Psychological and dietetic interventions are grounded in a process of active risk management. Evaluations of safety, cost and acceptability of the service are described. Results Patients are highly satisfied with their care. A relatively low mortality rate for such a high-risk population was observed. In-patient bed use and costs were substantially reduced. Clinical implications There is a case for greater use of intensive community care for patients with severe anorexia nervosa, as it can be acceptable to patients, relatively safe and cost less than admission.
    Psychiatric Bulletin 10/2014; 38(5). DOI:10.1192/pb.bp.113.044818
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    ABSTRACT: We analyzed results from surveys of respondents who had completed ≥ 30 days of treatment at Monte Nido Residential Treatment Program over a 10 year period. Participants with anorexia nervosa (AN; n = 66) and bulimia nervosa (BN; n = 52) completed the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and a structured eating disorder assessment at admission and follow-up. Mean duration between discharge and last follow-up was 4.6 years and 3.8 years for AN and BN respectively. For AN there were significant improvements in BMI, BDI, 10 of 11 EDI-2 subscales, and frequencies of bingeing and purging. For BN there were significant improvements in BDI, all EDI subscales, and frequencies of bingeing and purging. Eighty-nine percent of AN graduates and 75% of BN graduates had good or intermediate outcomes. Using linear regression, the best model contained the single variable, discharge BMI, which predicted 23% of the variance explaining full recovery from AN (p ≤ .02). For BN, the best model contained vomiting frequency and the bulimia subscale score of the EDI-2 at discharge, which accounted for 37% of the variance explaining full recovery from BN (p ≤ .02). The great majority of patients showed significant improvement at long-term follow-up after this program of residential treatment. In addition, these results underscore the importance of weight gain for AN patients and cessation of bulimic symptoms for BN patients when predicting long-term recovery.
    Eating disorders 03/2011; 19(2):132-44. DOI:10.1080/10640266.2011.551632 · 1.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Research has shown that eating disorder (ED) patients who abuse substances demonstrate worse ED symptomatology and poorer outcomes than those with EDs alone, including increased general medical complications and psychopathology, longer recovery times, poorer functional outcomes and higher relapse rates. This article provides a broad overview of the prevalence, aetiology, assessment and management of co-morbid EDs and substance use disorders (SUDs).Review: The co-occurrence of EDs and SUDs is high. The functional relationship between EDs and SUDs vary within and across ED subtypes, depends on the class of substance, and needs to be carefully assessed for each patient. Substances such as caffeine, tobacco, insulin, thyroid medications, stimulants or over the counter medications (laxatives, diuretics) may be used to aid weight loss and/ or provide energy, and alcohol or psychoactive substances could be used for emotional regulation or as part of a pattern of impulsive behaviour. A key message conveyed in the current literature is the importance of screening and assessment for co-morbid SUDs and EDs in patients presenting with either disorder. There is a paucity of treatment studies on the management of co-occurring EDs and SUDs. Overall, the literature indicates that the ED and SUD should be addressed simultaneously using a multi-disciplinary approach. The need for medical stabilization, hospitalization or inpatient treatment needs to be assessed based on general medical and psychiatric considerations. Common features across therapeutic interventions include psycho-education about the aetiological commonalities, risks and sequelae of concurrent ED behaviours and substance abuse, dietary education and planning, cognitive challenging of eating disordered attitudes and beliefs, building of skills and coping mechanisms, addressing obstacles to improvement and the prevention of relapse. Emphasis should be placed on building a collaborative therapeutic relationship and avoiding power struggles. Cognitive behavioural therapy has been frequently used in the treatment of co-morbid EDs and SUDs, however there are no randomized controlled trials. More recently evidence has been found for the efficacy of dialectical behavioural therapy in reducing both ED and substance use behaviours. Future research would benefit from a meta-analysis of the current research in order to better understand the relationships between these two commonly co-occurring disorders.
    BMC Psychiatry 11/2013; 13(1):289. DOI:10.1186/1471-244X-13-289 · 2.21 Impact Factor
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