Reconsidering Access: Park Facilities and Neighborhood Disamenities in New York City

Institute for Social and Economic Research and Policy, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.
Journal of Urban Health (Impact Factor: 1.9). 03/2011; 88(2):297-310. DOI: 10.1007/s11524-011-9551-z
Source: PubMed


With increasing concern about rising rates of obesity, public health researchers have begun to examine the availability of parks and other spaces for physical activity, particularly in cities, to assess whether access to parks reduces the risk of obesity. Much of the research in this field has shown that proximity to parks may support increased physical activity in urban environments; however, as yet, there has been limited consideration of environmental impediments or disamenities that might influence individuals' perceptions or usage of public recreation opportunities. Prior research suggests that neighborhood disamenities, for instance crime, pedestrian safety, and noxious land uses, might dissuade people from using parks or recreational facilities and vary by neighborhood composition. Motivated by such research, this study estimates the relationship between neighborhood compositional characteristics and measures of park facilities, controlling for variation in neighborhood disamenities, using geographic information systems (GIS) data for New York City parks and employing both kernel density estimation and distance measures. The central finding is that attention to neighborhood disamenities can appreciably alter the relationship between neighborhood composition and spatial access to parks. Policy efforts to enhance the recreational opportunities in urban areas should expand beyond a focus on availability to consider also the hazards and disincentives that may influence park usage.

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Available from: Andrew Rundle, Feb 17, 2014
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    • "Baran et al. (2013) examined several measures of the neighborhood built and social environment (e.g., land uses, sidewalks, crime, racial heterogeneity ) and found that park size and setting as well as sidewalk availability were positively associate with park usage while crime, poverty and racial diversity of the park neighborhood were negatively associated with park use. In one analysis in New York City that actually explored racial disparities in the neighborhood contexts around parks, it was reported that people of color had access to parks that were disproportionately adjacent to disamenities, including crime, lack of traffic safety, and noxious land uses in comparison to the parks that were accessible to Whites (Weiss et al., 2011). "
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