Transcriptional characterization of Wnt and Notch signaling pathways in neuronal differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells.
ABSTRACT Since the nervous system has limited self-repair capability, a great interest in using stem cells is generated to repair it. The adipose tissue is an abundant source of stem cells and previous reports have shown the differentiation of them in neuron-like cells when cultures are enriched with growth factors involved in neurogenesis. Regarding this, it could be thought that a functional parallelism between neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation of human adipose stem cells (hASCs) exists. For this reason, we investigated the putative involvement of Notch and Wnt pathways in neuronal differentiation of hASCs through real-time PCR. We found that both Wnt and Notch signaling are present in proliferating hASCs and that both cascades are downregulated when cells are differentiated to a neuronal phenotype. These results are in concordance with previous works where it was found that both pathways are involved in the maintenance of the proliferative state of stem cells, probably through inhibition of the expression of cell-fate-specific genes. These results could support the notion that hASCs differentiation into neuron-like cells represents a regulated process analogous to what occurs during neuronal differentiation of NSCs and could partially contribute to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in neuronal differentiation of adult human nonneural tissues.
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ABSTRACT: Recently, Notch signaling has been reported to underscore the ability of neural stem cells (NSCs) to self-renew. Utilizing mice deficient in presenilin-1(PS1), we asked whether the function of Notch signaling in NSC maintenance was conserved. At embryonic day 14.5, all NSCs--both similar (cortex-, ganglionic eminence- and hindbrain-derived) and distinct (retinal stem cell)--require Notch signaling in a gene-dosage-sensitive manner to undergo expansionary symmetric divisions, as assessed by the clonal, in vitro neurosphere assay. Within the adult, however, Notch signaling modulates cell cycle time in order to ensure brain-derived NSCs retain their self-renewal property. At face value, the effects in the embryo and adult appear different. We propose potential hypotheses, including the ability of cell cycle to modify the mode of division, in order to resolve this discrepancy. Regardless, these findings demonstrate that PS1, and presumably Notch signaling, is required to maintain all NSCs.Developmental Neuroscience 02/2006; 28(1-2):34-48. · 3.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Generation of the spinal cord relies on proliferation of undifferentiated cells located in a caudal stem zone. Although fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling is required to maintain this cell group, we do not know how it controls cell behavior in this context. Here we characterize an overlooked expression domain of the Notch ligand, Delta1, in the stem zone and demonstrate that this constitutes a proliferative cell group in which Notch signaling is active. We show that FGF signaling is required for expression of the proneural gene cash4 in the stem zone, which in turn induces Delta1. We further demonstrate that Notch signaling is required for cell proliferation within the stem zone; however, it does not regulate cell movement out of this region, nor is loss of Notch signaling sufficient to drive neuronal differentiation within this tissue. These data identify a novel role for the Notch pathway during vertebrate neurogenesis in which signaling between high Delta1-expressing cells maintains the neural precursor pool that generates the spinal cord. Our findings also suggest a mechanism for the establishment of the cell selection process, lateral inhibition: Mutual inhibition between Delta/Notch-expressing stem zone cells switches to single Delta1-presenting neurons as FGF activity declines in the newly formed neuroepithelium.Genes & Development 01/2006; 19(23):2877-87. · 12.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hes and Hey genes are the mammalian counterparts of the Hairy and Enhancer-of-split type of genes in Drosophila and they represent the primary targets of the Delta-Notch signaling pathway. Hairy-related factors control multiple steps of embryonic development and misregulation is associated with various defects. Hes and Hey genes (also called Hesr, Chf, Hrt, Herp or gridlock) encode transcriptional regulators of the basic helix-loop-helix class that mainly act as repressors. The molecular details of how Hes and Hey proteins control transcription are still poorly understood, however. Proposed modes of action include direct binding to N- or E-box DNA sequences of target promoters as well as indirect binding through other sequence-specific transcription factors or sequestration of transcriptional activators. Repression may rely on recruitment of corepressors and induction of histone modifications, or even interference with the general transcriptional machinery. All of these models require extensive protein-protein interactions. Here we review data published on protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions of Hairy-related factors and discuss their implications for transcriptional regulation. In addition, we summarize recent progress on the identification of potential target genes and the analysis of mouse models.Nucleic Acids Research 02/2007; 35(14):4583-96. · 8.28 Impact Factor