Intraoperative Tranexamic Acid Reduces Blood Transfusion in Children Undergoing Craniosynostosis Surgery A Randomized Double-blind Study
ABSTRACT Surgical correction of craniosynostosis in children is associated with substantial intraoperative bleeding. Tranexamic acid (TXA) decreases intraoperative blood loss during cardiac or orthopedic surgery in children. We hypothesized that intraoperative TXA would reduce blood transfusion relative to placebo in patients pretreated with erythropoietin.
Forty consecutive children, American Society of Anesthesiologists status 1 or 2, scheduled to undergo surgical correction of craniosynostosis were randomly assigned to receive either intravenous TXA or saline, 0.9%, intraoperatively. All children received preoperative erythropoietin (600 U/kg once a week for 3 weeks before surgery). Perioperative blood loss, number and volume of transfusions, percentage of children who underwent transfusion, and side effects were noted after surgery and at the end of the study. Surgeon satisfaction and cost of treatment were also recorded.
There was no significant difference between groups in demographic or surgical data. In the TXA group, the volume of packed erythrocytes transfused was significantly reduced by 85% (from 11 to 1.6 ml/kg) intraoperatively and by 57% (from 16.6 to 7.2 ml/kg) throughout the study period (P < 0.05). Compared with the placebo group, the percentage of children requiring blood transfusion was lower in the TXA group during surgery (9 [45%] of 20 vs. 2 [11%] of 19 children; P < 0.05) and during the whole study period (14 [70%] of 20 vs. 7 [37%] of 19; P < 0.05). Preoperative and postoperative hematologic parameters were comparable in both groups. There were no adverse events.
In children undergoing surgical correction of craniosynostosis and pretreated with erythropoietin, intraoperative TXA reduces the transfusion requirement.
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ABSTRACT: Pediatric patients when undergoing craniotomies and craniofacial surgery may potentially have significant blood loss. The amount and extent will be dictated by the nature of the surgical procedure, the proximity to major blood vessels, and the age, and weight of the patient. The goals should be to maintain hemodynamic stability and oxygen carrying capacity and to prevent and treat hyperfibrinolysis and dilutional coagulopathy. Over transfusion and transfusion-related side effects should be minimized. This article will highlight the pertinent considerations for managing massive blood loss in pediatric patients undergoing craniotomies and craniofacial surgery. North American and European guidelines for intraoperative administration of fluid and blood products will be discussed.Pediatric Anesthesia 05/2014; 24(7). DOI:10.1111/pan.12416 · 2.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: After studying this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Make the appropriate diagnosis for each of the single-sutural synostoses, based on the physical examination. 2. Explain the functional concerns associated with these synostoses and why surgical correction is indicated. 3. Distinguish between the different types of surgical corrections available, the timing for these various interventions, and in what ways these treatments achieve overall management objectives. 4. Identify the basic goals involved in caring for the syndromic synostoses. This article provides an overview of the diagnosis and management of infants with craniosynostosis. This review also incorporates some of the treatment philosophies followed at The Craniofacial Center in Dallas, but is not intended to be an exhaustive treatise on the subject. It is designed to serve as a reference point for further in-depth study by review of the reference articles presented. This information base is then used for self-assessment and benchmarking in parts of the Maintenance of Certification process of the American Board of Plastic Surgery.Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 05/2014; 133(5):1261-75. DOI:10.1097/PRS.0000000000000093 · 3.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Object Children with craniosynostosis may require cranial vault remodeling to prevent or relieve elevated intracranial pressure and to correct the underlying craniofacial abnormalities. The procedure is typically associated with significant blood loss and high transfusion rates. The risks associated with transfusions are well documented and include transmission of infectious agents, bacterial contamination, acute hemolytic reactions, transfusion-related lung injury, and transfusion-related immune modulation. This study presents the Children's Hospital of Richmond (CHoR) protocol, which was developed to reduce the rate of blood transfusion in infants undergoing primary craniosynostosis repair. Methods A retrospective chart review of pediatric patients treated between January 2003 and Febuary 2012 was performed. The CHoR protocol was instituted in November 2008, with the following 3 components; 1) the use of preoperative erythropoietin and iron therapy, 2) the use of an intraoperative blood recycling device, and 3) acceptance of a lower level of hemoglobin as a trigger for transfusion (< 7 g/dl). Patients who underwent surgery prior to the protocol implementation served as controls. Results A total of 60 children were included in the study, 32 of whom were treated with the CHoR protocol. The control (C) and protocol (P) groups were comparable with respect to patient age (7 vs 8.4 months, p = 0.145). Recombinant erythropoietin effectively raised the mean preoperative hemoglobin level in the P group (12 vs 9.7 g/dl, p < 0.001). Although adoption of more aggressive surgical vault remodeling in 2008 resulted in a higher estimated blood loss (212 vs 114.5 ml, p = 0.004) and length of surgery (4 vs 2.8 hours, p < 0.001), transfusion was performed in significantly fewer cases in the P group (56% vs 96%, p < 0.001). The mean length of stay in the hospital was shorter for the P group (2.6 vs 3.4 days, p < 0.001). Conclusions A protocol that includes preoperative administration of recombinant erythropoietin, intraoperative autologous blood recycling, and accepting a lower transfusion trigger significantly decreased transfusion utilization (p < 0.001). A decreased length of stay (p < 0.001) was seen, although the authors did not investigate whether composite transfusion complication reductions led to better outcomes.Journal of Neurosurgery Pediatrics 05/2014; 14(2):1-6. DOI:10.3171/2014.4.PEDS13449 · 1.37 Impact Factor