Intraoperative tranexamic acid reduces blood transfusion in children undergoing craniosynostosis surgery: a randomized double-blind study.
ABSTRACT Surgical correction of craniosynostosis in children is associated with substantial intraoperative bleeding. Tranexamic acid (TXA) decreases intraoperative blood loss during cardiac or orthopedic surgery in children. We hypothesized that intraoperative TXA would reduce blood transfusion relative to placebo in patients pretreated with erythropoietin.
Forty consecutive children, American Society of Anesthesiologists status 1 or 2, scheduled to undergo surgical correction of craniosynostosis were randomly assigned to receive either intravenous TXA or saline, 0.9%, intraoperatively. All children received preoperative erythropoietin (600 U/kg once a week for 3 weeks before surgery). Perioperative blood loss, number and volume of transfusions, percentage of children who underwent transfusion, and side effects were noted after surgery and at the end of the study. Surgeon satisfaction and cost of treatment were also recorded.
There was no significant difference between groups in demographic or surgical data. In the TXA group, the volume of packed erythrocytes transfused was significantly reduced by 85% (from 11 to 1.6 ml/kg) intraoperatively and by 57% (from 16.6 to 7.2 ml/kg) throughout the study period (P < 0.05). Compared with the placebo group, the percentage of children requiring blood transfusion was lower in the TXA group during surgery (9 [45%] of 20 vs. 2 [11%] of 19 children; P < 0.05) and during the whole study period (14 [70%] of 20 vs. 7 [37%] of 19; P < 0.05). Preoperative and postoperative hematologic parameters were comparable in both groups. There were no adverse events.
In children undergoing surgical correction of craniosynostosis and pretreated with erythropoietin, intraoperative TXA reduces the transfusion requirement.
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ABSTRACT: Homologous transfusions are mandatory in most surgical procedures for correcting craniofacial malformations in infancy. A program of preoperative and intraoperative auto-hemodonation was developed and carried out in eleven infants. Although homologous transfusion could have been avoided in only 7 patients, we think that further experiences and minor corrections of our program may improve these results.Child s Nervous System 03/1991; 7(1):40-2. · 1.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fibrin sealants (FS) derived from human plasma are frequently used in neurosurgery. In order to increase clot stability, FS typically contain aprotinin, a natural fibrinolysis inhibitor. Recently, synthetic fibrinolysis inhibitors such as tranexamic acid (tAMCA) have been considered as substitutes for aprotinin. However, tAMCA has been shown to cause epileptic seizures. We wanted to study whether tAMCA retains its convulsive action if incorporated into a FS. FS containing aprotinin or different concentrations of tAMCA (0.5-47.5 mg/ml) were applied to the pial surface of the cortex of anaesthetized rats. The response of the animals was evaluated using electroencephalography and by monitoring the clinical behaviour during and after recovery from anaesthesia. FS containing tAMCA caused paroxysmal brain activity which was associated with distinct convulsive behaviours. The degree of these seizures increased with increasing concentration of tAMCA. Thus, FS containing 47.5 mg/ml tAMCA evoked generalized seizures in all tested rats (n=6) while the lowest concentration of tAMCA (0.5 mg/ml) only evoked brief episodes of jerk-correlated convulsive potentials in 1 of 6 rats. In contrast, FS containing aprotinin did not evoke any paroxysmal activity. Tranexamic acid retains its convulsive action within FS. Thus, use of FS containing tAMCA for surgery within or close to the CNS may pose a substantial risk to the patient.Acta Neurochirurgica 02/2002; 144(1):63-9. · 1.55 Impact Factor
Article: Craniosynostosis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Craniosynostosis, caused by premature fusion of the sutures, may be syndromic or non-syndromic. Radiology has an important role to play in the assessment, management and follow-up of these patients. Initial investigations may often be undertaken within general radiology departments. An understanding of the terminology and recognition of the predictable patterns of presentation are essential to enable appropriate referral to a craniofacial unit where further investigation and management are undertaken. We present the radiological features of several craniosynostoses with an emphasis on the role of plain radiography. We demonstrate the complementary role of computed tomography in their evaluation within the setting of a specialist centre.Clinical Radiology 03/2002; 57(2):93-102. · 1.82 Impact Factor