Intraoperative Tranexamic Acid Reduces Blood Transfusion in Children Undergoing Craniosynostosis Surgery A Randomized Double-blind Study
ABSTRACT Surgical correction of craniosynostosis in children is associated with substantial intraoperative bleeding. Tranexamic acid (TXA) decreases intraoperative blood loss during cardiac or orthopedic surgery in children. We hypothesized that intraoperative TXA would reduce blood transfusion relative to placebo in patients pretreated with erythropoietin.
Forty consecutive children, American Society of Anesthesiologists status 1 or 2, scheduled to undergo surgical correction of craniosynostosis were randomly assigned to receive either intravenous TXA or saline, 0.9%, intraoperatively. All children received preoperative erythropoietin (600 U/kg once a week for 3 weeks before surgery). Perioperative blood loss, number and volume of transfusions, percentage of children who underwent transfusion, and side effects were noted after surgery and at the end of the study. Surgeon satisfaction and cost of treatment were also recorded.
There was no significant difference between groups in demographic or surgical data. In the TXA group, the volume of packed erythrocytes transfused was significantly reduced by 85% (from 11 to 1.6 ml/kg) intraoperatively and by 57% (from 16.6 to 7.2 ml/kg) throughout the study period (P < 0.05). Compared with the placebo group, the percentage of children requiring blood transfusion was lower in the TXA group during surgery (9 [45%] of 20 vs. 2 [11%] of 19 children; P < 0.05) and during the whole study period (14 [70%] of 20 vs. 7 [37%] of 19; P < 0.05). Preoperative and postoperative hematologic parameters were comparable in both groups. There were no adverse events.
In children undergoing surgical correction of craniosynostosis and pretreated with erythropoietin, intraoperative TXA reduces the transfusion requirement.
- Anesthesiology 02/2011; 114(4):737-8. DOI:10.1097/ALN.0b013e3182110083 · 6.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE/AIMS: To assess current practices in the management of children undergoing craniofacial surgery and identify areas of significant practice variability with the intent to direct future research. The perioperative management of infants and children undergoing craniofacial reconstruction surgery can be challenging because of the routine occurrence of significant blood loss with associated morbidity. A variety of techniques have been described to improve the care for these children. It is presently unknown to what extent these practices are currently employed. A web-based survey was sent to representatives from 102 institutions. One individual per institution was surveyed to prevent larger institutions from being over-represented in the results. Requests to complete the survey were sent to 102 institutions; 48 surveys were completed. The survey was composed of two parts: management of infants undergoing strip craniectomies, and management of children undergoing major craniofacial reconstruction. Significant variability exists in the management of children undergoing these procedures; further study is required to determine the optimal management strategies. Clinical trials assessing the utility of central venous pressure and other hemodynamic monitoring modalities would enable evidence-based decision-making for monitoring in these children. The development of institutional transfusion thresholds should be encouraged, as there exists a body of evidence supporting their efficacy and safety.Pediatric Anesthesia 05/2011; 21(10):1026-35. DOI:10.1111/j.1460-9592.2011.03619.x · 1.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study investigated the differences in effectiveness and morbidity between endoscopically assisted wide-vertex strip craniectomy with barrel-stave osteotomies and postoperative helmet therapy versus open calvarial vault reconstruction without helmet therapy for sagittal craniosynostosis. Between 2003 and 2010, the authors prospectively observed 89 children less than 12 months old who were surgically treated for a diagnosis of isolated sagittal synostosis. The endoscopic procedure was offered starting in 2006. The data associated with length of stay, blood loss, transfusion rates, operating times, and cephalic indices were reviewed. There were 47 endoscopically treated patients with a mean age at surgery of 3.6 months and 42 patients with open-vault reconstruction whose mean age at surgery was 6.8 months. The mean follow-up time was 13 months for endoscopic versus 25 months for open procedures. The mean operating time for the endoscopic procedure was 88 minutes, versus 179 minutes for the open surgery. The mean blood loss was 29 ml for endoscopic versus 218 ml for open procedures. Three endoscopically treated cases (6.4%) underwent transfusion, whereas all patients with open procedures underwent transfusion, with a mean of 1.6 transfusions per patient. The mean length of stay was 1.2 days for endoscopic and 3.9 days for open procedures. Of endoscopically treated patients completing helmet therapy, the mean duration for helmet therapy was 8.7 months. The mean pre- and postoperative cephalic indices for endoscopic procedures were 68% and 76% at 13 months postoperatively, versus 68% and 77% at 25 months postoperatively for open surgery. Endoscopically assisted strip craniectomy offers a safe and effective treatment for sagittal craniosynostosis that is comparable in outcome to calvarial vault reconstruction, with no increase in morbidity and a shorter length of stay.Journal of Neurosurgery Pediatrics 08/2011; 8(2):165-70. DOI:10.3171/2011.5.PEDS1128 · 1.37 Impact Factor