"Pediatric-type" Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors in Adults: Distinctive Histology Predicts Genotype and Clinical Behavior

Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
The American journal of surgical pathology (Impact Factor: 5.15). 02/2011; 35(4):495-504. DOI: 10.1097/PAS.0b013e31820e5f7d
Source: PubMed


Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) rarely affect children, mainly girls. Pediatric GISTs typically arise in the stomach as multifocal tumors with a multinodular growth pattern, epithelioid morphology, lymph node metastases, an absence of KIT and PDGFRA gene mutations, and indolent behavior. Occasional GISTs in adults show similar features. Such tumors are not widely recognized. GISTs with a multinodular growth pattern in patients over the age of 18 years were retrieved from surgical and consultation files. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides were reviewed, immunohistochemistry was performed, and KIT (exons 9, 11, 13, and 17) and PDGFRA (exons 12, 14, and 18) genes were screened for mutations. Clinical follow-up was obtained. Sixteen cases were identified, affecting 13 women and 3 men (median age, 31.5 y; range, 19 to 56 y), all in the stomach. The mean tumor size was 5.4 cm (range, 1.8 to 11 cm); 4 were multifocal. All tumors showed a multinodular or plexiform architecture and epithelioid (N=3) or mixed epithelioid and spindle cell (N=13) morphology. Five tumors had vascular invasion; 6 had focal necrosis. Mitotic activity ranged from 3 to 156/50 high-power fields (8 tumors had ≤5/50 high-power fields). Using Armed Forces Institute of Pathology risk stratification, categories for primary tumors were: none (N=2), very low risk (N=3), low risk (N=3), moderate risk (N=3), and high risk (N=5). By immunohistochemistry, all tumors were positive for KIT, 82% DOG1, 72% CD34, 18% caldesmon, 9% S-100, 8% smooth muscle actin, and 0% desmin. All tumors were wild type for KIT and PDGFRA in the exons that were screened. At primary resection, 9 patients (56%) had lymph node metastases and 3 patients had liver metastases. Follow-up ranged from 16 months to 16 years (median, 5 y). Two tumors recurred locally in the stomach and 7 patients developed subsequent metastases to the lymph nodes (N=5), liver (N=3), and peritoneum/omentum (N=3). Primary tumors from 7 patients with metastases were Armed Forces Institute of Pathology low risk, very low risk, or no risk of recurrence. None of the metastatic tumors responded to treatment with imatinib mesylate. One patient died of disseminated liver and intra-abdominal metastases and the remaining patients were alive at last follow-up. Gastric GISTs in adults with a multinodular or plexiform growth pattern and epithelioid or mixed morphology are similar to pediatric GISTs. Unlike conventional adult GISTs, this distinctive subset predominantly affects women, often metastasizes to lymph nodes, and lacks mutations in KIT and PDGFRA. Current risk assessment criteria do not reliably predict behavior for this group. Although metastases are common and most tumors are imatinib resistant, they pursue a relatively indolent clinical course. Recognition of "pediatric-type" GISTs in adults is critical for prognosis, appropriate therapy, and follow-up.

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    • "May 2013 | Volume 3 | Article 117 | 1 tumors (Gill et al., 2010b; Rege et al., 2011). Included under this umbrella classification are GISTs from multi-neoplastic syndromes known as Carney triad (CT) and Carney–Stratakis syndrome (CSS). "
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    ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) in adults are generally driven by somatic gain-of-function mutations in KIT or PDGFRA, and biological therapies targeted to these receptor tyrosine kinases comprise part of the treatment regimen for metastatic and inoperable GISTs. A minority (10-15%) of GISTs in adults, along with ∼85% of pediatric GISTs, lacks oncogenic mutations in KIT and PDGFRA. Not surprisingly these wild type (WT) GISTs respond poorly to kinase inhibitor therapy. A subset of WT GISTs shares a set of distinguishing clinical and pathological features, and a flurry of recent reports has convincingly demonstrated shared molecular characteristics. These GISTs have a distinct transcriptional profile including over-expression of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor, and exhibit deficiency in the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) enzyme complex. The latter is often but not always linked to bi-allelic inactivation of SDH subunit genes, particularly SDHA. This review will summarize the molecular, pathological, and clinical connections that link this group of SDH-deficient neoplasms, and offer a view toward understanding the underlying biology of the disease and the therapeutic challenges implicit to this biology.
    Frontiers in Oncology 05/2013; 3:117. DOI:10.3389/fonc.2013.00117
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    • "In comparison with KIT-mutant GISTs, the objective response to the kinase inhibitor imatinib is significantly lower among wild-type tumors (44–45% vs. 70–71%) [4–6]. Of note, SDH-deficient, IGF1Rhigh gastric GISTs show essentially no response to treatment with imatinib, but can respond to sunitinib [8,9]. In addition, IGF1R-targeted therapy of wild-type GIST is under investigation in clinical trials (e.g., NCT01560260), and the heterogeneity of IGF1R and IGF2 expression in the GIST groups may portend differential responses. "
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    ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) arise from the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) and are the most common mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. While the majority of GISTs harbor activating mutations in either the v-kit Hardy-Zuckerman feline sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KIT) or platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) tyrosine kinases, approximately 10-15% of adult GISTs and 85% of pediatric GISTs lack such mutations. These "wild-type" GISTs have been reported to express high levels of the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R), and IGF1R-targeted therapy of wild-type GISTs is being evaluated in clinical trials. However, it is not clear that all wild-type GISTs express IGF1R, because studies to date have predominantly focused on a particular subtype of gastric wild-type GIST that is deficient in the mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex. This study of a series of 136 GISTs, including 72 wild-type specimens, was therefore undertaken to further characterize wild-type GIST subtypes based on the relative expression of transcripts encoding IGF1R. Additional transcripts relevant to GIST biology were also evaluated, including members of the IGF-signaling pathway (IGF1, IGF2, and insulin receptor [INSR]), neural markers (CDH2[CDH: Cadherin], neurofilament, light polypeptide, LHX2 [LHX: LIM homeobox], and KIRREL3 [KIRREL: kin of IRRE like]), KIT, PDGFRA, CD34, and HIF1A. Succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit B protein expression was also assessed as a measure of SDH complex integrity. In addition to the previously described SDH-deficient, IGF1R(high) wild-type GISTs, other SDH-intact wild-type subpopulations were defined by high relative expression of IGF1R, neural markers, IGF1 and INSR, or low IGF1R coupled with high IGF2. These results underscore the complexity and heterogeneity of wild-type GISTs that will need to be factored into molecularly-targeted therapeutic strategies.
    Cancer Medicine 02/2013; 2(1):21-31. DOI:10.1002/cam4.57 · 2.50 Impact Factor
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    • "The majority of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) harbor gain-of-function mutations in KIT or PDGFRA, resulting in the activation of the downstream pathways PI3K/AKT, Ras/MAPK, and JAK/STAT3, and playing a crucial role in tumorigenesis [1,2]. A subset of GIST lack specific KIT or PDGFRA mutations and form a heterogeneous group, including NF1, Carney Triad (CT), Carney-Stratakis Syndrome (CSS), pediatric and young adult GIST, and a small proportion (<10%) of sporadic adult GIST [3-8]. The mechanisms involved in the tumorigenesis of GIST lacking KIT or PDGFRA mutations are still poorly understood. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background A subset of KIT/PDGFRA wild-type gastrointestinal stromal tumors (WT GIST) have been associated with alteration of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex II function. A recent report identified four non-syndromic, KIT/PDGFRA WT GIST harboring compound heterozygous or homozygous mutations in SDHA encoding the main subunit of the SDH complex II. Methods Next generation sequencing was applied on five pediatric and one young adult WT GIST, by whole exome capture and SOLiD 3-plus system sequencing. The putative mutations were first confirmed by Sanger sequencing and then screened on a larger panel of 11 pediatric and young adult WT GIST, including 5 in the context of Carney triad. Results A germline p.Arg31X nonsense SDHA mutation was identified in one of the six cases tested by SOLiD platform. An additional p.D38V missense mutation in SDHA exon 2 was identified by Sanger sequencing in the extended KIT/PDGFRA WT GIST patients cohort. Western blotting showed loss of SDHA expression in the two cases harboring SDHA mutations, while expression being retained in the other WT GIST tumors. Results were further confirmed by immunohistochemistry for both SDHA and SDHB, which showed a concurrent loss of expression of both proteins in SDHA-mutant lesions, while the remaining WT tumors showed only loss of SDHB expression. Conclusions Germline and/or somatic aberrations of SDHA occur in a small subset of KIT/PDGFRA WT GISTs, outside the Carney’s triad and are associated with loss of both SDHA and SDHB protein expression. Mutations of the SDH complex II are more particularly associated with KIT/PDGFRA WT GIST occurring in young adults. Although pediatric GIST consistently display alterations of SDHB protein expression, further molecular studies are needed to identify the crucial genes involved in their tumorigenesis.
    BMC Cancer 09/2012; 12(1):408. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-12-408 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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