ATP-dependent and independent functions of Rad54 in genome maintenance

Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Cancer Genomics Center, 3000 CA Rotterdam, Netherlands.
The Journal of Cell Biology (Impact Factor: 9.69). 02/2011; 192(5):735-50. DOI: 10.1083/jcb.201011025
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Rad54, a member of the SWI/SNF protein family of DNA-dependent ATPases, repairs DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) through homologous recombination. Here we demonstrate that Rad54 is required for the timely accumulation of the homologous recombination proteins Rad51 and Brca2 at DSBs. Because replication protein A and Nbs1 accumulation is not affected by Rad54 depletion, Rad54 is downstream of DSB resection. Rad54-mediated Rad51 accumulation does not require Rad54's ATPase activity. Thus, our experiments demonstrate that SWI/SNF proteins may have functions independent of their ATPase activity. However, quantitative real-time analysis of Rad54 focus formation indicates that Rad54's ATPase activity is required for the disassociation of Rad54 from DNA and Rad54 turnover at DSBs. Although the non-DNA-bound fraction of Rad54 reversibly interacts with a focus, independent of its ATPase status, the DNA-bound fraction is immobilized in the absence of ATP hydrolysis by Rad54. Finally, we show that ATP hydrolysis by Rad54 is required for the redistribution of DSB repair sites within the nucleus.

Download full-text


Available from: Aude Guénolé, Jun 28, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mechanistic analyses based on improved imaging techniques have begun to explore the biological implications of chromatin movement within the nucleus. Studies in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes have shed light on what regulates the mobility of DNA over long distances. Interestingly, in eukaryotes, genomic loci increase their movement in response to double-strand break induction. Break mobility, in turn, correlates with the efficiency of repair by homologous recombination. We review here the source and regulation of DNA mobility and discuss how it can both contribute to and jeopardize genome stability.
    Cell 03/2013; 152(6):1355-64. DOI:10.1016/j.cell.2013.02.010 · 33.12 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: DNA damage signaling and repair take place in a chromatin context. Consequently, chromatin-modifying enzymes, including adenosine triphosphate-dependent chromatin remodeling enzymes, play an important role in the management of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Here, we show that the p400 ATPase is required for DNA repair by homologous recombination (HR). Indeed, although p400 is not required for DNA damage signaling, DNA DSB repair is defective in the absence of p400. We demonstrate that p400 is important for HR-dependent processes, such as recruitment of Rad51 to DSB (a key component of HR), homology-directed repair, and survival after DNA damage. Strikingly, p400 and Rad51 are present in the same complex and both favor chromatin remodeling around DSBs. Altogether, our data provide a direct molecular link between Rad51 and a chromatin remodeling enzyme involved in chromatin decompaction around DNA DSBs.
    The Journal of Cell Biology 12/2012; 199(7):1067-81. DOI:10.1083/jcb.201205059 · 9.69 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Homologous recombination (HR) is an essential genome stability mechanism used for high-fidelity repair of DNA double-strand breaks and for the recovery of stalled or collapsed DNA replication forks. The crucial homology search and DNA strand exchange steps of HR are catalyzed by presynaptic filaments-helical filaments of a recombinase enzyme bound to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). Presynaptic filaments are fundamentally dynamic structures, the assembly, catalytic turnover, and disassembly of which must be closely coordinated with other elements of the DNA recombination, repair, and replication machinery in order for genome maintenance functions to be effective. Here, we reviewed the major dynamic elements controlling the assembly, activity, and disassembly of presynaptic filaments; some intrinsic such as recombinase ATP-binding and hydrolytic activities, others extrinsic such as ssDNA-binding proteins, mediator proteins, and DNA motor proteins. We examined dynamic behavior on multiple levels, including atomic- and filament-level structural changes associated with ATP binding and hydrolysis as evidenced in crystal structures, as well as subunit binding and dissociation events driven by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. We examined the biochemical properties of recombination proteins from four model systems (T4 phage, Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Homo sapiens), demonstrating how their properties are tailored for the context-specific requirements in these diverse species. We proposed that the presynaptic filament has evolved to rely on multiple external factors for increased multilevel regulation of HR processes in genomes with greater structural and sequence complexity.
    Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 06/2011; 46(3):240-70. DOI:10.3109/10409238.2011.576007 · 5.81 Impact Factor