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Augmented Rififylin Is a Risk Factor Linked to Aberrant Cardiomyocyte Function, Short-QT Interval and Hypertension

Physiological Genomics Laboratory, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Toledo College of Medicine, 3000 Arlington Ave, Toledo, OH 43614-2598, USA.
Hypertension (Impact Factor: 7.63). 02/2011; 57(4):764-71. DOI: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.110.165803
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ABSTRACT Using congenic strains of the Dahl salt-sensitive (S) rat introgressed with genomic segments from the normotensive Lewis rat, a blood pressure quantitative trait locus was previously mapped within 104 kb on chromosome 10. The goal of the current study was to conduct extensive phenotypic studies and to further fine-map this locus. At 14 weeks of age, the blood pressure of the congenic rats fed a low-salt diet was significantly higher by 47 mm Hg (P<0.001) compared with that of the S rat. A time-course study showed that the blood pressure effect was significant from very young ages of 50 to 52 days (13 mm Hg; P<0.01). The congenic strain implanted with electrocardiography transmitters demonstrated shorter-QT intervals and increased heart rate compared with S rats (P<0.01). The average survival of the congenic strain was shorter (134 days) compared with the S rat (175 days; P<0.0007). The critical region was narrowed to <42.5 kb containing 171 variants and a single gene, rififylin. Both the mRNA and protein levels of rififylin were significantly higher in the hearts of the congenic strain. Overexpression of rififylin is known to delay endocytic recycling. Endocytic recycling of fluorescently labeled holotransferrin from cardiomyocytes of the congenic strain was slower than that of S rats (P<0.01). Frequency of cardiomyocyte beats in the congenic strain (62±9 bpm) was significantly higher than that of the S rat (24±6 bpm; P<0.001). Taken together, our study provides evidence to suggest that early perturbations in endocytic recycling caused by the overexpression of Rffl is a novel physiological mechanism potentially underlying the development of hypertension.

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Available from: Sivarajan Kumarasamy, Aug 30, 2015
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    • "The congenic strain used in the current study was constructed in our laboratory using S and LEW rats. The strain is designated as S.LEW (10) × 12 × 2 × 3 × 5 and the construction of this congenic strain is detailed elsewhere (Gopalakrishnan et al., 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Cell surface proteins are internalized into the cell through endocytosis and either degraded within lysosomes or recycled back to the plasma membrane. While perturbations in endosomal internalization are known to modulate renal function, it is not known whether similar alterations in recycling affect renal function. Rififylin is a known regulator of endocytic recycling with E3 ubiquitin protein ligase activity. In this study, using two genetically similar strains, the Dahl Salt-sensitive rat and an S.LEW congenic strain, which had allelic variants within a < 330 kb segment containing rififylin, we tested the hypothesis that alterations in endosomal recycling affect renal function. The congenic strain had 1.59-fold higher renal expression of rififylin. Transcriptome analysis indicated that components of both endocytosis and recycling were upregulated in the congenic strain. Transcription of Atp1a1 and cell surface content of the protein product of Atp1a1, the alpha subunit of Na(+)K(+)ATPase were increased in the proximal tubules from the congenic strain. Because rififylin does not directly regulate endocytosis and it is also a differentially expressed gene within the congenic segment, we reasoned that the observed alterations in the transcriptome of the congenic strain constitute a feedback response to the primary functional alteration of recycling caused by rififylin. To test this, recycling of transferrin was studied in isolated proximal tubules. Recycling was significantly delayed within isolated proximal tubules of the congenic strain, which also had a higher level of polyubiquitinated proteins and proteinuria compared with S. These data provide evidence to suggest that delayed endosomal recycling caused by excess of rififylin indirectly affects endocytosis, enhances intracellular protein polyubiquitination and contributes to proteinuria.
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