Non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) is one of the fastest growing forms of illicit drug use, with research indicating that college students represent a particularly high risk population. The current study examined demographic characteristics, health/mental health, substance misuse, and rape experiences as potential risk correlates of NMUPD among a national sample of college women (N=2000). Interviews were conducted via telephone using Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing technology. NMUPD was assessed by asking if, participants had used a prescription drug non-medically in the past year. NMUPD was endorsed by 7.8% of the sample (n=155). Although incapacitated and drug-alcohol facilitated rape were associated with NMUPD in the initial model, the final multivariable model showed that only lifetime major depression and other forms of substance use/abuse were significantly uniquely associated with an increased likelihood of NMUPD. Implications for primary and secondary prevention and subsequent research are addressed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies have substantiated a relationship between drug use, depression, and suicidality. However, little research has examined this relationship with prescription drugs. Given the prevalence of non-medical prescription drug use (NMPDU) among college students, this study explored the association between general and specific NMPDU, depressive symptoms, and suicidality.
Data from the Fall 2008 National College Health Assessment (NCHA) was utilized (N=22,783). Five separate logistic regression models were employed, with the first combining any NMPDU (antidepressants, painkillers, sedatives, and stimulants) followed by four additional regressions for each drug, and then separated by gender. Models were estimated before and after control for key covariates.
Approximately 13% of participants reported NMPDU. After covariate adjustment, those who reported feeling hopeless, sad, depressed, or considered suicide were 1.22-1.31 times more likely to report NMPDU (p<.05). Those who reported feeling hopeless, sad, or depressed were 1.18-1.43 times more likely to report opioid painkiller use; those who reported feeling sad, depressed, or considered suicide were 1.22-1.38 times more likely to report stimulant use; those who reported being depressed were 1.36 times more likely to report sedative use; and those who reported feeling hopeless or depressed were 1.44 and 1.91 times more likely to report antidepressant use (p<.05). When the adjusted models were repeated separately by gender, results were more pronounced for females, especially for females who reported painkiller use.
Depressive symptoms and suicidality were significantly associated with greater odds of any NMPDU, with painkiller use (especially for females) representing the greatest correlate among college students. Results suggest that students may be inappropriately self-medicating psychological distress with prescription medications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To identify when youth are most likely to start using prescription pain relievers to get high or for other unapproved indications outside the boundaries of what a prescribing physician might intend (ie, extramedical use). DESIGN: Cross-sectional surveys of adolescent cohorts, 2004 to 2008. SETTING: The United States. PARTICIPANTS: Large nationally representative samples of youth in the United States who had been assessed for the 2004 through 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, yielding data from 138 729 participants aged 12 to 21 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Estimated age-specific risk of starting extramedical use of prescription pain relievers, year by year, and confirmation of age at peak risk by tracing the experience of individual cohorts during this period. RESULTS: The estimated peak risk of starting extramedical use of prescription pain relievers occurs in midadolescence, well before the college years. The age at peak risk is 16 years, when an estimated 2% to 3% become newly incident users. Smaller risk estimates are observed at age 12 to 14 years and at age 19 to 21 years. CONCLUSIONS: For initiatives to prevent youth from using prescription pain relievers to get high or for other unapproved indications, a focus on the last year of high school and the post-secondary school years may be too little too late. Practice-based approaches are needed in addition to public health interventions based on effective alcohol and tobacco prevention programs during the earlier adolescent years.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Exchange of prescription medications is a significant public health problem particularly among substance abusing populations. Little is known about the extent of medication sharing and receiving behaviors in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) populations and the factors associated with such behaviors.
We examined rates, and factors associated with past year medication sharing and receiving practices of 315 MMT smokers who had enrolled in a clinical trial of smoking cessation. Sequential logistic regression models estimated the effect of demographic and substance use variables on the probability of sharing or receiving medications.
Participants averaged 40 years of age, and 49% were male. Among persons prescribed medications, 19.9% reported sharing. Nearly 40% had used medication not prescribed to them. Pain medications, sleep medications, and sedatives, were most commonly shared and received. Younger age was a significant predictor of both sharing medications (OR=0.92, 95%CI 0.88; 0.96, p<.01) and receiving medications (OR=0.94, 95%CI 0.92; 0.97, p<.01). Financial hardship (OR=2.05, 95%CI 1.13; 3.72, p<.05), and recent use of heroin (OR=5.59, 95%CI 1.89; 16.57, p<.01) or cocaine (OR=3.70, 95%CI 1.48; 9.28, p<.05), were also independently associated with a significantly higher likelihood of receiving prescription drugs of abuse.
The high prevalence of prescription medication sharing and receiving behaviors among persons in MMT often include substances with abuse potential and suggest the need for comprehensive approaches for minimizing this phenomenon.
Drug and alcohol dependence 07/2012; 127(1-3). DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.07.007 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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