Impaired insulin signaling in endothelial cells reduces insulin-induced glucose uptake by skeletal muscle.
ABSTRACT In obese patients with type 2 diabetes, insulin delivery to and insulin-dependent glucose uptake by skeletal muscle are delayed and impaired. The mechanisms underlying the delay and impairment are unclear. We demonstrate that impaired insulin signaling in endothelial cells, due to reduced Irs2 expression and insulin-induced eNOS phosphorylation, causes attenuation of insulin-induced capillary recruitment and insulin delivery, which in turn reduces glucose uptake by skeletal muscle. Moreover, restoration of insulin-induced eNOS phosphorylation in endothelial cells completely reverses the reduction in capillary recruitment and insulin delivery in tissue-specific knockout mice lacking Irs2 in endothelial cells and fed a high-fat diet. As a result, glucose uptake by skeletal muscle is restored in these mice. Taken together, our results show that insulin signaling in endothelial cells plays a pivotal role in the regulation of glucose uptake by skeletal muscle. Furthermore, improving endothelial insulin signaling may serve as a therapeutic strategy for ameliorating skeletal muscle insulin resistance.
- SourceAvailable from: Christopher Horst Lillig[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase systems of bacterial cytoplasm and eukaryotic cytosol favor reducing conditions and protein thiol groups, while bacterial periplasm and eukaryotic endoplasmatic reticulum provide oxidizing conditions and a machinery for disulfide bond formation in the secretory pathway. Oxidoreductases of the thioredoxin fold superfamily catalyze steps in oxidative protein folding via protein-protein interactions and covalent catalysis to act as chaperones and isomerases of disulfides to generate a native fold. The active site dithiol/disulfide of thioredoxin fold proteins is CXXC where variations of the residues inside the disulfide ring are known to increase the redox potential like in protein disulfide isomerases. In the catalytic mechanism thioredoxin fold proteins bind to target proteins through conserved backbone-backbone hydrogen bonds and induce conformational changes of the target disulfide followed by nucleophilic attack by the N-terminally located low pK(a) Cys residue. This generates a mixed disulfide covalent bond which subsequently is resolved by attack from the C-terminally located Cys residue. This review will focus on two members of the thioredoxin superfamily of proteins known to be crucial for maintaining a reduced intracellular redox state, thioredoxin and glutaredoxin, and their potential functions as facilitators and regulators of protein folding and chaperone activity.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research 05/2008; 1783(4):641-50. · 4.81 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Dietary restriction (DR) is well known as a nongenetic intervention that robustly extends lifespan in a variety of species; however, its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We have found in Caenorhabditis elegans that dietary deprivation (DD) during adulthood, defined as removal of their food source Escherichia coli after the completion of larval development, increased lifespan and enhanced thermotolerance and resistance to oxidative stress. DD-induced longevity was independent of one C. elegans SIRTUIN, sir-2.1, which is required for the effects of DR, and was independent of the daf-2/insulin-like signaling pathway that independently regulates longevity and larval diapause in C. elegans. DD did not significantly alter lifespan of fem-1(hc17); eat-2(ad465) worms, a genetic model of DR. These findings suggest that DD and DR share some downstream effectors. In addition, DD was detrimental for longevity when imposed on reproductively active young adults, suggesting that DD may only be beneficial in the absence of competing metabolic demands, such as fertility. Adult-onset DD offers a new paradigm for investigating dietary regulation of longevity in C. elegans. This study presents the first evidence that long-term DD, instead of being detrimental, can extend lifespan of a multicellular adult organism.Aging Cell 01/2007; 5(6):515-24. · 5.71 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In many organisms, dietary restriction appears to extend lifespan, at least in part, by down-regulating the nutrient-sensor TOR (Target Of Rapamycin). TOR inhibition elicits autophagy, the large-scale recycling of cytoplasmic macromolecules and organelles. In this study, we asked whether autophagy might contribute to the lifespan extension induced by dietary restriction in C. elegans. We find that dietary restriction and TOR inhibition produce an autophagic phenotype and that inhibiting genes required for autophagy prevents dietary restriction and TOR inhibition from extending lifespan. The longevity response to dietary restriction in C. elegans requires the PHA-4 transcription factor. We find that the autophagic response to dietary restriction also requires PHA-4 activity, indicating that autophagy is a transcriptionally regulated response to food limitation. In spite of the rejuvenating effect that autophagy is predicted to have on cells, our findings suggest that autophagy is not sufficient to extend lifespan. Long-lived daf-2 insulin/IGF-1 receptor mutants require both autophagy and the transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO for their longevity, but we find that autophagy takes place in the absence of DAF-16. Perhaps autophagy is not sufficient for lifespan extension because although it provides raw material for new macromolecular synthesis, DAF-16/FOXO must program the cells to recycle this raw material into cell-protective longevity proteins.PLoS Genetics 03/2008; 4(2):e24. · 8.52 Impact Factor