Article

Détermination des teneurs en atropine et scopolamine de différentes espèces sauvages et ornementales du genre Datura Determination of atropine and scopolamine contents in wild and ornamental varieties of Datura

Annales de Toxicologie Analytique 01/2010; DOI: 10.1051/ata/2010028
Source: DOAJ

ABSTRACT Introduction : Le genre Datura fait partie de la famille des solanacées, vaste de plusieurs milliers d’espèces. Ce genre se caractérise par une production importante d’alcaloïdes tropaniques : hyoscyamine, atropine et scopolamine. L’objectif de cette étude est d’apprécier la dangerosité de certaines espèces ornementales par rapport aux espèces sauvages en déterminant leurs concentrations respectives en atropine et scopolamine. Méthodes : Cinq plants d’origine sauvage (Datura stramonium et inoxia) et deux plants ornementaux (Datura wrightii) ont été récoltés. Les alcaloïdes ont été extraits de chaque partie de la plante par du dichlorométhane puis analysés par chromatographie gazeuse couplée à la spectrométrie de masse. Résultats : Les concentrations en atropine et scopolamine varient selon les espèces, les parties de la plante ainsi qu’en fonction de la période de récolte. Pour les espèces sauvages, de fortes concentrations en atropine sont observées dans les feuilles et les graines de Datura stramonium. En revanche les concentrations en atropine sont faibles pour l’espèce Datura Inoxia mais cette espèce présente les plus fortes concentrations en scopolamine. Pour l’espèce ornementale Datura wrightii les concentrations en atropine retrouvées sont relativement faibles mais les concentrations en scopolamine sont plus élevées que chez Datura stramonium. Conclusion : Ces résultats montrent que les variétés ornementales de Datura peuvent être dangereuses puisque les concentrations en alcaloïdes tropaniques y sont importantes. L’ingestion d’une quantité relativement faible de feuilles de Datura wrightii pourrait entraîner l’apparition de symptômes anticholinergiques. Il semblerait donc utile d’intervenir auprès des responsables communaux pour empêcher la plantation de ces espèces dans les espaces publics. Introduction: Datura is one of the genera of the wide family of solanaceae. This genus is characterized by the production of tropane alkaloids: atropine, hyoscyamine and scopolamine. The aim of this study was to appreciate the potential danger represented by ornamental species of Datura by determining the concentrations of alkaloids present in the plant and compare the results with the concentrations obtained for wild species of Datura. Methods: Five stem samples collected in the wild (Datura stramonium and inoxia) and two specimens of Datura wrightii collected from public parks were analysed. Dry samples of leaves, flowers, roots and seeds were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after extraction with methylene chloride. Results: Concentrations of atropine and scopolamine are variable with the species, parts of the plants and harvest times. For wild species highest concentrations of atropine were observed in the leaves and seeds of Datura stramonium. Concentrations of atropine are low for Datura inoxia however this species has the highest concentrations of scopolamine. For the ornamental Datura wrightii concentrations of atropine are low but scopolamine concentrations are higher than those observed for Datura stramonium. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that ornamental varieties of Datura can be dangerous because they exhibit high concentrations of tropane alkaloids mainly scopolamine. Ingestion of a small quantity of Datura wrightii leaves can lead to serious anticholinergic symptoms. It should be useful to alert authorities on the danger of these ornamental species and prevent their plantation in public spaces.

1 Bookmark
 · 
127 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Datura stramonium is an herbaceous annual plant. All parts of the plant contain tropane alkaloids such as atropine and scopolamine. We report the case of a 22-year-old man admitted to a general hospital for visual and aural hallucinations. One week after his admission, as the hallucinations remained, the patient was transferred to a psychiatric hospital. Neither blood nor urine was conserved during his hospitalization, so a hair analysis was requested in order to identify a possible consumption of a Datura seed infusion. METHODS: After decontamination and washing, hair strands were segmented into four pieces and grinded into a fine and homogeneous powder. We then incubated 20mg for 10min in 1mL of phosphate buffer at pH 5.0 in the presence of 100ng of ketamine-d4, used as internal standard (IS). Liquid-liquid extraction was performed with 4mL of a mixture of hexane/ethyl acetate (1/1, v/v). The residue was reconstituted in 80μL of mobile phase. A further 10μL were injected into an 1.9μm Hypersil GOLD PFP column (100mm×2.1mm) eluted with a gradient of acetonitrile and 2mmol/L 0.1% formate buffer at a flow rate of 300μL/min. Compounds were detected by a LCQ TSQ Vantage XP triple-quadripole mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source set in positive mode. SRM transitions m/z 290.2→124.1, m/z 304.2→138.1, and m/z 242.1→129.1 were optimized for atropine, scopolamine and IS, respectively. RESULTS: The assay was accurate and precise over the range of 1.0 (lower limit of quantification) to 1000.0pg/mg (upper limit of quantification) in hair. Both atropine (from 8.4 to 15.0pg/mg) and scopolamine (1.0-1.3pg/mg) were identified in the four segment of the hair showing a regular consumption of Datura admitted by the patient himself. CONCLUSION: We report here the first description of atropine with scopolamine in a Caucasian dark man's hair after D. stramonium chronic exposure, using a validated LC-MS/MS method.
    Forensic science international 10/2012; 223(1-3). DOI:10.1016/j.forsciint.2012.09.015 · 2.10 Impact Factor