Cataract is a self-defence reaction to protect the retina from oxidative damage
ABSTRACT Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in developed countries. Cataract extraction is the most common surgical procedure in developed countries. Lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z), retinal carotenoids, are the most powerful retinal anti-oxidants and absorb the harmful blue light. The depletion of L+Z induces the development of the lens opacification-cataract. Cataract reduces the retinal oxidative stress (OS), which causes a reduction of the probability to develop AMD. Oxidative Stress at the retinal level is the common pathway in the development of AMD and cataract. AMD and cataract are not two independent processes. Cataract is a self-defense reaction of the retina to reduce OS and retinal damage. Restoring the anti-oxidative capabilities of the retina by increasing intake of L+Z reduces the likelihood of AMD and cataract. Extracting the opaque lens elevates the retinal OS and increases the rate of AMD.
- ChemMedChem 12/2011; 6(12):2155-7. DOI:10.1002/cmdc.201100374 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the independent pathogenic role of high serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels, sociodemographic data, dietary and environmental risk factors for visual disability (VD). This was a case-control study, run in 200 black Congolese patients managed in Saint Joseph Hospital Ophthalmology Division from Kinshasa town. Logistic regression model was used to identify determinants of VD (n=58) among sex, age, cigarette smoking, alcohol abuse, rural-urban migration, education levels, aging ≥60 years, intake of red Beans, Safou fruit and Taro leaves, lipid profile, residence, socioeconomic status, and GGT. After adjusting for confounding factors, we identified migration (OR=3.7 95% CI: 1.2-11.3; P=0.023), low education level (OR=3.1 95% CI 1.1-8.5; P=0.026), no intake of Safou fruit (OR=34.2 95% CI 11.5-102; P<0.0001), age ≥ 60 years (OR=2.5 95% CI 1.01-6.5; P=0.049), and serum GGT ≥10 U/L (OR=3.6 95% CI 1.3-9.6; P=0.012) as the significant and independent determinants of VD. VD appears as a major public health problem in Central Africa to be prevented or delayed by control of migration, lifestyle changes, antioxidant supplements, appropriate diet, nutrition education, and blocking of oxidative stress.08/2012; 5(4):493-8. DOI:10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2012.04.17
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ABSTRACT: To analyze the effects of age, cataract surgery and postoperative period on macular pigment optical density (MPOD). The study included cases referred to Ankara University Department of Ophthalmology, between April and June 2012, who had a transparent natural lens or had undergone cataract surgery at least a year ago with their best corrected visual acuity of ≥ 0.5 based on Snellen chart. Presence of an ocular disease that might affect lens, retina and optic nerve (cataract, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma etc.), cataract surgery within the previous year, light-colored iris, smoking and use of micronutrition supplementation were determined as exclusion criteria. After detailed opthalmologic examination of all patients, they were divided into three groups based on their age and their lens status as: group 1, patients < 50 years of age having a clear lens; group 2, patients > 50 years of age having a clear lens; and group 3, patients > 50 years of age who had cataract surgery. Age, gender, and postoperative period of the patients as well as the MPOD values of the eyes measured with heterochromatic flicker photometric (HFP) method (MacularMetricsTM) were included in the analysis. Sixty-eight eyes of 37 cases with a mean age of 53.4 ± 15.3 years were enrolled in the study. Group 1 included 20 eyes of 10 cases (mean age 29.4 ± 9.5); group 2 included 32 eyes of 16 cases (mean age 60.3 ± 6.8); and group 3 included 16 eyes of 11 cases (mean age 65.2 ± 9.7). The mean macular pigment optical density value of all cases was 0.511 ± 0.192 log unit, while the mean MPOD values of groups 1, 2 and 3 were 0.570 ± 170, 0.528 ± 203 and 0.400 ± 180 log units, respectively. The mean MPOD values of the patients with clear lens aged < 50 and aged > 50 years did not reveal a statisticially significant difference (p = 1). However, the mean MPOD value of the cataract surgery group (group 3) was found to be statistically significantly lower than the group 1 and group 2 (p = 0.022, p = 0.039, respectively). The correlations between MPOD values and postoperative periods of the patients in group 3 showed that a decrease in MPOD values in parallel with duration of the postoperative period and this negative correlation was found to be statistically significant (r: -0.66, p = 0.005). Our study has demonstrated that a significant correlation does not exist between age of the patients and MPOD values. MPOD values were lower than age-matched patients who had undergone cataract surgery and finally an inverse correlation existed between duration of the postoperative period after cataract surgery and MPOD values.Albrecht von Graæes Archiv für Ophthalmologie 07/2013; 252(2). DOI:10.1007/s00417-013-2424-2 · 2.33 Impact Factor