Are trained individuals more likely to perform bystander CPR? An observational study.
ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the association of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training with bystander resuscitation performance and patient outcomes after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA).
This was a prospective, population-based cohort study of all persons aged 18 years or older with OHCA of presumed intrinsic origin and their rescuers from January through December 2008 in Takatsuki, Osaka prefecture, Japan. Data on resuscitation of OHCA patients were obtained by emergency medical service (EMS) personnel in charge based on the Utstein style. Rescuers' characteristics including experience of CPR training were obtained by EMS personnel interview on the scene. The primary outcome was the attempt of bystander CPR.
Data were collected for 120 cases out of 170 OHCAs of intrinsic origin. Among the available cases, 60 (50.0%) had previous CPR training (trained rescuer group). The proportion of bystander CPR was significantly higher in the trained rescuer group than in the untrained rescuer group (75.0% and 43.3%; p = 0.001). Bystanders who had previous experience of CPR training were 3.40 times (95% confidence interval 1.31-8.85) more likely to perform CPR compared with those without previous CPR training. The number of patients with neurologically favorable one-month survival was too small to evaluate statistical difference between the groups (2 [3.3%] in the trained rescuer group versus 1 [1.7%] in the untrained rescuer group; p = 0.500).
People who had experienced CPR training had a greater tendency to perform bystander CPR than people without experience of CPR training. Further studies are needed to prove the effectiveness of CPR training on survival.
- SourceAvailable from: Robert Thomas Brennan[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study evaluates a peer-training model for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) instruction for laypersons. Forty-one Norwegian factory employees were trained in CPR and given instructor training. These first trainees then trained 311 co-workers. These employees then trained 873 family members and associates at home. The reference group consists of employees in a Massachusetts commercial hotel trained in seven American Red Cross (ARC): Adult CPR classes. The Norwegian home trainees learned CPR using a cardboard training manikin and were trained by Norwegian factory employees who had learned CPR from co-workers. Trainees were evaluated using skill sheets and a Laerdal Skillmeter manikin. The performance of the Norwegians trained at home by peers did not differ from that of the ARC: Adult CPR trainees in six skills of the initial sequence of CPR. The home trainees outperformed the ARC: Adult CPR trainees in the proportion of compressions delivered correctly (P = 0.032) and ventilations delivered correctly (P = 0.015). Peer training may provide CPR instruction comparable to training in CPR classes at lower cost and with potential to reach new population segments.Resuscitation 05/1995; 29(2):119-28. · 4.10 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To assess whether bystander CPR (BCPR) on collapse affects initial rhythm and outcome in patients with witnessed, unmonitored out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Prospective cohort study. Student's t test, the chi 2 test, and logistic regression were used for analysis. Suburban emergency medical service (EMS) system. Patients 19 years or older with witnessed OHCA of presumed cardiac origin who experienced cardiac arrest before EMS arrival between July 1989 and July 1993. Of 722 patients who met the entry criteria, 153 received BCPR. Patients who received BCPR were younger than those who did not: 62.5 +/- 15.4 years versus 66.8 +/- 15.1 years (P < .01). We found no differences in basic or advanced life support response intervals or in frequency of AED use. More patients initially had ventricular fibrillation (VF) in the BCPR group: 80.9% versus 61.4% (P < .01). The interval to definitive care for ventricular tachycardia (VT)/VF was longer for the BCPR group (8.59 +/- 5.3 versus 7.45 +/- 4.7 minutes; P < .05). The percentage of patients discharged alive who were initially in VT/VF was higher in the BCPR group: 18.3% versus 8.4% (P < .001). In a multivariate model, BCPR is a significant predictor for VT/VF and live discharge with adjusted ORs of 2.7 (95% CI, 1.7 to 4.4) and 2.4 (95% CI, 1.5 to 4.0), respectively. For those patients in VT/VF, BCPR predicted live discharge from hospital with an adjusted OR of 2.1 (95% CI, 1.2 to 3.6). Patients who receive BCPR are more often found in VT/VF and have an increased rate of live discharge, with controls for age and response and definitive care intervals. For VT/VF patients, BCPR is associated with an increased rate of live discharge.Annals of Emergency Medicine 07/1995; 25(6):780-4. · 4.29 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A tremendous amount of public resources are focused on improving cardiac arrest (OHCA) survival in public places, yet most OHCAs occur in private residences. A prospective, observational study of patients transported to seven urban and suburban hospitals and the individuals who called 911 at the time of a cardiac arrest (bystander) was performed. Bystanders (N=543) were interviewed via telephone beginning 2 weeks after the incident to obtain data regarding patient and bystander demographics, including cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training. Of all arrests 80.2% were in homes. Patients who arrested in public places were significantly younger (63.2 vs. 67.2, P<0.02), more often had an initial rhythm of VF (63.0 vs. 37.7%, P<0.001), were seen or heard to have collapsed by a bystander (74.8 vs. 48.1%, P<0.001), received bystander CPR (60.2 vs. 28.6%, P<0.001), and survived to DC (17.5 vs. 5.5%, P<0.001). Patients who arrested at home were older and had an older bystander (55.4 vs. 41.3, P<0.001). The bystander was less likely to be CPR trained (65.0 vs. 47.4%, P<0.001), less likely to be trained within the last 5 years (49.2 vs. 17.9, P<0.001), and less likely to perform CPR if trained (64.2 vs. 30.0%, P<0.001). Collapse to shock intervals for public versus home VF patients were not different. Many important characteristics of cardiac arrest patients and the bystander differ in public versus private locations. Fundamentally different strategies are needed to improve survival from these events.Resuscitation 08/2003; 58(2):171-6. · 4.10 Impact Factor