Open cardiac surgery in the first hours of life using autologous umbilical cord blood
ABSTRACT This article describes the first clinical experience of complete repair of complex critical congenital heart diseases (CHDs) in the first hours of life using autologous umbilical cord blood (UCB). Prenatal diagnosis and harvesting of autologous UCB allow to modify perioperative management and to perform corrective surgery in the first hours of a patient's life. This approach can afford avoiding homologous blood transfusion and preventing development of hypoxemia and heart failure due to hemodynamic changes of complex critical CHD.
The study group included 14 consecutive prenatally diagnosed patients with critical complex CHD during the period from September 2009 to August 2010. Autologous UCB was harvested in accordance to NetCord-FACT International Standards for Cord Blood Collection and was used during the surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). In all cases, complete repair was performed during the first hours of life: arterial switch operation (n=9); arterial switch operation with total anomalous pulmonary venous communication repair (n=1); arterial switch operation with interruption of the aortic arch repair (n=1); Ebstein's repair (n=2); and aortopulmonary window repair with interruption of the aortic arch repair (n=1). All procedures were performed using moderate hypothermia with cold-crystalloid cardioplegia, except one case that required deep hypothermic circulatory arrest.
A mean of 92±16 ml of UCB was harvested. Autologous UCB was used during the surgery in all 14 cases. Mean age of newborns at operation was 4.7±2 h (3-8). No patients required intensive care unit (ICU) admission, interventional procedures, mechanical ventilation, or medications before surgery. Twelve patients underwent bloodless open heart surgery; eight of them completely avoided homologous blood transfusion during the perioperative period. There was one postoperative death in our study (Ebstein's anomaly).
The use of autologous umbilical cord blood is feasible in neonatal open heart surgery. Complete surgical repair of complex critical CHD can be applied successfully to neonates within the first hours of life.
The Annals of thoracic surgery 04/2013; 95(4):1513. DOI:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2012.08.110 · 3.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The optimal timing for neonatal cardiac surgery is unknown. We aimed to determine the relationship between age at surgery and perioperative outcomes, hypothesizing that earlier intervention would be associated with lower morbidity and mortality. A retrospective review was performed of neonates who had undergone an arterial switch operation, stage 1 palliation for functional single ventricle, or systemic-to-pulmonary shunt for obstructed pulmonary blood flow from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2010. The subjects with clinical indications for delayed surgery or prematurity were excluded. Age at surgery was evaluated as both a continuous and a categorical variable. The primary outcome was a composite endpoint of mortality or prolonged intensive care stay. Of 344 subjects, 286 (77 arterial switch operation, 124 stage 1 palliation, 85 systemic-to-pulmonary shunt) met the inclusion criteria. In each group, age at surgery was not associated with the primary composite endpoint. The patients who died after systemic-to-pulmonary shunt had a median age at surgery of 3 days versus 6 days for the survivors (P = .04). A similar, but nonsignificant, pattern was seen for patients undergoing arterial switch operations (4.5 vs 7 days; P = .09). Earlier surgery was not associated with a reduced duration of vasoactive support, mechanical ventilation, or intensive care unit length of stay in any group. Stage 1 palliation subjects in the upper age quartile (≥8 days) at surgery were less likely to require prolonged mechanical ventilation (P = .03). Younger age at intervention in the neonatal period was not associated with reduced morbidity or mortality in any procedural subgroup studied. In our cohort, earlier systemic-to-pulmonary shunt for obstructed pulmonary blood flow was associated with a greater likelihood of a poor outcome.The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 08/2013; 147(5). DOI:10.1016/j.jtcvs.2013.07.020 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite advances in the fields of prevention, medical intervention and surgical therapy, cardiovascular disease remains a major public healthcare issue. A promising area of research is the potential application of regenerative therapies with pluripotential stem cells to reduce the burden of heart disease and its sequelae. Umbilical cord blood, a rich source of multiple populations of nonembryonic stem cells, will be a valuable resource and has the potential to advance therapeutic options for patients with acquired and congenital heart disease.01/2012; 2012:568132. DOI:10.1155/2012/568132