Standing guard at the mucosa.
ABSTRACT Most successful vaccines elicit antibodies that protect against infection. In this issue of Immunity, Bomsel et al. (2011) show in the rhesus macaque model that vaccine-induced mucosal antibodies, rather than circulating neutralizing antibodies, may be critical components for protective immunity against HIV-1.
- SourceAvailable from: Mustafeez Mujtaba Babar[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The development of safe and effective models for the delivery of any prophylactic or therapeutic agent remains an uphill task for pharmaceutical formulation developers. Drug molecules, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, proteins and a variety of other biological and chemical entities are used for attaining pharmacological benefits. However, the major challenge remains in the delivery of these agents to the specific site of action in a time-efficient manner. Among the many drug delivery systems developed, the nano scale technology of virosomes tends to present an established system of delivering the therapeutic agents to the site of pharmacological action. Virosomes are lipid bilayer, unilamellar structures that present viral protein on their surface. They are safe, biocompatible and biodegradable structures that can achieve ideal pharmacological profile once administered into the body. Tissue targeting, immune activation and potentiation are the chief advantages that make them efficient prophylactic and therapeutic agents. The review presents the biopharmaceutical applications of virosomes and the immunological and pharmaceutical considerations that make them efficient agents for targeting spatiotemporal parameters in the body.Journal of Antivirals and Antiretrovirals 12/2013; 5(7):166-172. DOI:10.4172/jaa.1000083
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ABSTRACT: The global spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is dependent on the ability of this virus to efficiently cross from one host to the next by traversing a mucosal membrane. Unraveling how mucosal exposure of HIV results in systemic infection is critical for the development of effective therapeutic strategies. This review focuses on understanding the immune events associated with the oral route of transmission (via breastfeeding or sexual oral intercourse), which occurs across the oral and/or gastrointestinal mucosa. Studies in both humans and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) monkey models have identified viral changes and immune events associated with oral HIV/SIV exposure. This review covers our current knowledge of HIV oral transmission in both infants and adults, the use of SIV models in understanding early immune events, oral immune factors that modulate HIV/SIV susceptibility (including mucosal inflammation), and interventions that may impact oral HIV transmission rates. Understanding the factors that influence oral HIV transmission will provide the foundation for developing immune therapeutic and vaccine strategies that can protect both infants and adults from oral HIV transmission.Immunological Reviews 07/2013; 254(1):34-53. DOI:10.1111/imr.12078 · 12.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DCs) modulate B-cell survival and differentiation, mainly through production of growth factors such as B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS/BAFF). We have recently shown that in HIV-1-infected rapid and classic progressors B-cell dysregulations were associated with increased BLyS/BAFF expression in plasma and by blood myeloid DCs (mDCs), in contrast to aviremic slow progressors, also known as elite controllers. In previous work with HIV-transgenic mice, B-cell dysregulations were concomitant with altered mDCs and dependant on HIV negative factor (Nef). We now report that HIV-1-Nef is detected in plasma and BLyS/BAFF over-expressing blood mDCs of HIV-1-infected rapid and classic progressors, early on infection and despite successful therapy, whereas it is low to undetectable in aviremic slow progressors. In vitro, HIV-1-Nef drives monocyte-derived DCs towards BLyS/BAFF over-expression, through a process involving STAT1. Importantly, this is counteracted in presence of all-trans retinoic acid. Nef thus contributes to high BLyS/BAFF pro-inflammatory profiles in HIV-1-infected individuals.