Genotyping Natural Infections of Schistosoma mansoni in Biomphalaria alexandrina From Damietta, Egypt, with Comparisons to Natural Snail Infections From Kenya

a Parasitology Department, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University, 165 EI-Horreya Avenue, Alexandria, Egypt, PO Box 21561.
Journal of Parasitology (Impact Factor: 1.23). 02/2011; 97(1):156-9. DOI: 10.1645/GE-2537.1
Source: PubMed


The distribution of Schistosoma genotypes among individuals in snail populations provides insights regarding the dynamics of transmission and compatibility between schistosome and snail hosts. A survey of Biomphalaria alexandrina from Damietta (Nile Delta, Egypt), an area subjected to persistent schistosomiasis control efforts, provided only 17 snails infected with Schistosoma mansoni (6.1% overall prevalence), each shown by microsatellite analysis to have a single genotype infection. By contrast, recent studies of uncontrolled S. mansoni transmission foci in Kenya revealed that 4.3% Biomphalaria pfeifferi and 20-25% Biomphalaria sudanica snails had multiple genotype infections. Compared with the 3 Kenyan populations, the Egyptian population of S. mansoni also showed a lesser degree of genetic variability and was genetically differentiated from them. We suggest that tracking of genotype diversity in infected snails could be further developed to serve as an additional and valuable independent indicator of efficacy of schistosomiasis control in Egypt and elsewhere.

Download full-text


Available from: Wael M. Lotfy,
  • Source

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Schistosomiasis is a serious parasitic disease caused by blood-dwelling flukes of the genus Schistosoma. Throughout the world, schistosomiasis is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, with close to 800million people at risk of infection. Precise methods for identification of Schistosoma species and diagnosis of schistosomiasis are crucial for an enhanced understanding of parasite epidemiology that informs effective antiparasitic treatment and preventive measures. Traditional approaches for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis include etiological, immunological and imaging techniques. Diagnosis of schistosomiasis has been revolutionized by the advent of new molecular technologies to amplify parasite nucleic acids. Among these, polymerase chain reaction-based methods have been useful in the analysis of genetic variation among Schistosoma spp. Mass spectrometry is now extending the range of biological molecules that can be detected. In this review, we summarize traditional, non-DNA-based diagnostic methods and then describe and discuss the current and developing molecular techniques for the diagnosis, species differentiation and phylogenetic analysis of Schistosoma spp. These exciting techniques provide foundations for further development of more effective and precise approaches to differentiate schistosomes and diagnose schistosomiasis in the clinic, and also have important implication for exploring novel measures to control schistosomiasis in the near future.
    Biotechnology advances 02/2012; 30(6):1381-9. DOI:10.1016/j.biotechadv.2012.02.008 · 9.02 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Rapid urbanization in Brazil has meant that many persons from rural areas to which Schistosoma mansoni is endemic have migrated to cities. Discovery of a focus of active transmission in the city of Salvador prompted a citywide survey for active and potential transmission sites. Cercariae shed from infected snails collected from four locations were used to determine how these samples were related and if they were representative of the parasite population infecting humans. Each cercarial collection was greatly differentiated from the others, and diversity was significantly lower when compared with eggs from natural human infections in one site. Egg samples collected 7 years earlier in one neighborhood showed little differentiation (Jost's D = 0.01-0.03). Given the clonal nature of parasite reproduction in the snail host and the short-term acquisition of parasites, cercariae from collections at one time point are unlikely to be representative of the diversity in the human population.
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 09/2012; 87(5). DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0641 · 2.70 Impact Factor
Show more