Article

Monetary incentive effects on event-based prospective memory three months after traumatic brain injury in children

Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Alliance of Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology (Impact Factor: 2.16). 02/2011; 33(6):639-46. DOI: 10.1080/13803395.2010.547844
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Information regarding the remediation of event-based prospective memory (EB-PM) impairments following pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) is scarce. Addressing this, two levels of monetary incentives were used to improve EB-PM in children ages 7 to 16 years with orthopedic injuries (OI, n = 51), or moderate (n = 25) and severe (n = 39) TBI at approximately 3 months postinjury. The EB-PM task consisted of the child giving a specific verbal response to a verbal cue from the examiner while performing a battery of neuropsychological measures (ongoing task). Significant effects were found for age-at-test, motivation condition, period, and group. Within-group analyses indicated that OI and moderate TBI groups performed significantly better under the high- than under the low-incentive condition, but the severe TBI group demonstrated no significant improvement. These results indicate that EB-PM can be significantly improved at 3 months postinjury in children with moderate, but not severe, TBI.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Lori G. Cook, Jun 17, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
116 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Prospective memory is the ability to remember to execute future intentions and thoughts. It is probably the newest established field of memory research. We provide a selective review of work conducted in the last two decades with respect to the following issues: (1) the different types and characteristics of prospective tasks, (2) the theoretical models of the cognitive processes support-ing prospective memory, (3) prospective memory performance in younger and older adults and (4) the findings from neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies. The findings indicate an extraordinarily fast progress in our under-standing of the behaviour and the brain regions that are involved in this impor-tant ability, and suggest at least two possible emerging areas of enquiry for future research: a link with the closely related field of prospection (i.e., think-ing about the future), and "expectation prospective memory" (triggering of behaviour in the absence of awareness depending on contingencies learnt from the environment). Prospective memory (PM) is commonly defined as the set of abilities that are used when remembering to perform an intended action, or thought, at some future point (Brandimonte, Einstein, & McDaniel, 1996). This type of mem-ory is in constant use in everyday life in order to fulfil intentions ranging from the simple, such as remembering to take out the garbage when leaving home, to the more complex, such as remembering to organise a surprise party for a friend's birthday. This ability is critical to competent human functioning, so much so that previous studies have suggested that PM problems are the most frequent memory failures in everyday life (Kliegel & Martin, 2003). Rela-tively little experimental and theoretical investigation was conducted on this topic until the last 15 years. However, since then there has been a remarkable increase in number of research studies that have considered PM.
    Psychologica Belgica 06/2012; 52(2-3):173-204. DOI:10.5334/pb-52-2-3-172 · 0.47 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: To understand the neurocognitive effects of brain injury, valid neuropsychological test findings are paramount. Review: This review examines the research on what has been referred to a symptom validity testing (SVT). Above a designated cut-score signifies a 'passing' SVT performance which is likely the best indicator of valid neuropsychological test findings. Likewise, substantially below cut-point performance that nears chance or is at chance signifies invalid test performance. Significantly below chance is the sine qua non neuropsychological indicator for malingering. However, the interpretative problems with SVT performance below the cut-point yet far above chance are substantial, as pointed out in this review. This intermediate, border-zone performance on SVT measures is where substantial interpretative challenges exist. Case studies are used to highlight the many areas where additional research is needed. Historical perspectives are reviewed along with the neurobiology of effort. Reasons why performance validity testing (PVT) may be better than the SVT term are reviewed. Conclusions: Advances in neuroimaging techniques may be key in better understanding the meaning of border zone SVT failure. The review demonstrates the problems with rigidity in interpretation with established cut-scores. A better understanding of how certain types of neurological, neuropsychiatric and/or even test conditions may affect SVT performance is needed.
    Brain Injury 09/2014; 28(13-14):1-16. DOI:10.3109/02699052.2014.947627 · 1.86 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Few studies exist investigating the brain-behavior relations of event-based prospective memory (EB-PM) impairments following traumatic brain injury (TBI). To address this, children with moderate-to-severe TBI performed an EB-PM test with two motivational enhancement conditions and underwent concurrent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at 3 months post-injury. Children with orthopedic injuries (OI; n=37) or moderate-to-severe TBI (n=40) were contrasted. Significant group differences were found for fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient for orbitofrontal white matter (WM), cingulum bundles, and uncinate fasciculi. The FA of these WM structures in children with TBI significantly correlated with EB-PM performance in the high, but not the low motivation condition. Regression analyses within the TBI group indicated that the FA of the left cingulum bundle (p=0.003), left orbitofrontal WM (p<0.02), and left (p<0.02) and right (p<0.008) uncinate fasciculi significantly predicted EB-PM performance in the high motivation condition. We infer that the cingulum bundles, orbitofrontal WM, and uncinate fasciculi are important WM structures mediating motivation-based EB-PM responses following moderate-to-severe TBI in children.
    Journal of neurotrauma 04/2011; 28(4):503-16. DOI:10.1089/neu.2010.1555 · 3.97 Impact Factor