Role of nucleoside transporters SLC28A2/3 and SLC29A1/2 genetics in ribavirin therapy: protection against anemia in patients with chronic hepatitis C
ABSTRACT The standard of hepatitis C antiviral therapy combines pegylated interferon-α with ribavirin. This polar guanosine analog improves the sustained virological response (SVR) rates, but may induce hemolytic anemia. As its pharmacokinetics depend on facilitated transmembrane transport, we assessed whether variants in genes that code for concentrative (concentrative nucleoside transporters 2 and 3 coded by SLC28A2 and SLC28A3, respectively) and equilibrative nucleoside transporters (equilibrative nucleoside transporters 1 and 2 coded by SLC29A1 and SLC29A2, respectively) are associated with the therapy response and side effects.
Patients (n=169) chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus genotype 1, treated with standard doses of pegylated interferon-α and weight-based doses of ribavirin for up to 48 weeks, were genotyped for 21 variants in nucleoside transporter genes SLC28A2, SLC28A3, SLC29A1, and SLC29A2, selected to include reported functional variants and to span the complete gene loci. The presence or absence of a SVR (n=169) and a relevant decrease (>3 g/dl, n=115) in blood hemoglobin were associated with the genotypes.
The variant SLC28A3 haplotype rs10868138G/rs56350726T (allelic frequency 0.074) was associated with a lower incidence (35.5%) of relevant decreases (>3 g/dl) in blood hemoglobin than in noncarriers (64.3%; P=0.024, n=115). This protection against hemolytic anemia was not associated with decreased SVR rates (n=169).
A genetic variant in SCL28A3 coding for the concentrative nucleoside transporter 3 protects patients with chronic hepatitis C against hemolytic anemia without affecting SVR in hepatitis C virus genotype 1.
SourceAvailable from: Sarah Allegra[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Ribavirin is phosphorylated by adenosine kinase 1 (AK1) and cytosolic 5′-nucleotidase 2 and it is transported into cells by concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNT) 2/3, coded by SLC28A2/3 genes, and equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENT) 1/2, coded by SLC29A1/2 genes. We evaluated the association of some polymorphisms of IL28B, SLC28A2/3, SLC29A1, ABCB1, NT5C2, AK1, HNF4α genes and ribavirin treatment outcome and pharmacokinetics after 4 weeks of therapy, in a cohort of HCV-1/4 Italian patients. Allelic discrimination was performed by real-time PCR; plasma concentrations were determined at the end of dosing interval (Ctrough) using an HPLC-UV method. Non response was negatively predicted by cryoglobulinemia and IL28B_rs12980275 AA genotype and positively by Metavir score; Metavir score, insulin resistance and SLC28A2_rs1060896 CA/AA and HNF4α_rs1884613 CC genotypes were negative predictive factors of SVR, while HCV viral load at baseline and IL28B_rs12980275 AA and rs8099917 TT genotypes positively predicted this outcome; RVR was negatively predicted by insulin resistance and positively by cryoglobulinemia and IL28B_rs12980275 AA genotype; Metavir score and insulin resistance were able to negatively predict EVR, whereas cryoglobulinemia and IL28B_rs12980275 AA genotype positively predicted it; at last, virological relapse was negatively predicted by IL28B_rs8099917 TT and AK1_rs1109374 TT genotypes, insulin resistance was a positive predictor factor. Concerning ribavirin pharmacokinetics, SLC28A2_rs11854488 TT was related to lower Ctrough levels; conversely patients with TC profile of SLC28A3_rs10868138 and SLC29A1_rs760370 GG genotype had higher ribavirin levels. These results might contribute to the clarification of mechanisms causing the individuality in the response to ribavirin containing therapy.Biomedecine [?] Pharmacotherapy 11/2014; 69. DOI:10.1016/j.biopha.2014.10.030 · 2.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNTs) are responsible for cellular entry of nucleosides, which serve as precursors to nucleic acids and act as signaling molecules. CNTs also play a crucial role in the uptake of nucleoside-derived drugs, including anticancer and antiviral agents. Understanding how CNTs recognize and import their substrates could not only lead to a better understanding of nucleoside-related biological processes but also the design of nucleoside-derived drugs that can better reach their targets. Here we present a combination of x-ray crystallographic and equilibrium-binding studies probing the molecular origins of nucleoside and nucleoside drug selectivity of a CNT from Vibrio cholerae. We then used this information in chemically modifying an anticancer drug so that is better transported by and selective for a single human CNT subtype. This work provides proof of principle for utilizing transporter structural and functional information for the design of compounds that enter cells more efficiently and selectively.eLife Sciences 07/2014; DOI:10.7554/eLife.03604 · 8.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Nucleoside and nucleobase analogs are currently used in the treatment of solid tumors, lymphoproliferative diseases, viral infections such as hepatitis and AIDS, and some inflammatory diseases such as Crohn. Two gene families are implicated in the uptake of nucleosides and nucleoside analogs into cells, SCL28 and SLC29. The former encodes hCNT1, hCNT2, and hCNT3 proteins. They translocate nucleosides in a Na(+) coupled manner with high affinity and some substrate selectivity, being hCNT1 and hCNT2 pyrimidine- and purine-preferring, respectively, and hCNT3 a broad selectivity transporter. SLC29 genes encode four members, being hENT1 and hENT2 the only two which are unequivocally implicated in the translocation of nucleosides and nucleobases (the latter mostly via hENT2) at the cell plasma membrane. Some nucleoside-derived drugs can also interact with and be translocated by members of the SLC22 gene family, particularly hOCT and hOAT proteins. Inter-individual differences in transporter function and perhaps, more importantly, altered expression associated with the disease itself might modulate the transporter profile of target cells, thereby determining drug bioavailability and action. Drug transporter pharmacology has been periodically reviewed. Thus, with this contribution we aim at providing a state-of-the-art overview of the clinical evidence generated so far supporting the concept that these membrane proteins can indeed be biomarkers suitable for diagnosis and/or prognosis. Last but not least, some of these transporter proteins can also be envisaged as drug targets, as long as they can show "transceptor" functions, in some cases related to their role as modulators of extracellular adenosine levels, thereby providing a functional link between P1 receptors and transporters.Frontiers in Pharmacology 02/2015; 6:13. DOI:10.3389/fphar.2015.00013