Enzymatic formation of an aromatic dodecaketide by engineered plant polyketide synthase
ABSTRACT Octaketide synthase (OKS) from Aloe arborescens is a plant-specific type III polyketide synthase (PKS) that catalyzes iterative condensations of eight molecules of malonyl-CoA to produce the C(16) aromatic octaketides SEK4 and SEK4b. On the basis of the crystal structures of OKS, the F66L/N222G double mutant was constructed and shown to produce an unnatural dodecaketide TW95a by sequential condensations of 12 molecules of malonyl-CoA. The C(24) naphthophenone TW95a is a product of the minimal type II PKS (whiE from Streptomyces coelicolor), and is structurally related to the C(20) decaketide benzophenone SEK15, the product of the OKS N222G point mutant. The C(24) dodecaketide naphthophenone TW95a is the first and the longest polyketide scaffold generated by a structurally simple type III PKS. A homology model predicted that the active-site cavity volume of the F66L/N222G mutant is increased to 748Å(3), from 652Å(3) of the wild-type OKS. The structure-based engineering thus greatly expanded the catalytic repertoire of the simple type III PKS to further produce larger and more complex polyketide molecules.
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ABSTRACT: Type III plant polyketide synthases (PKSs) biosynthesize a dazzling array of polyphenolic products that serve important roles in both plant and human health. Recent advances in structural characterization of these enzymes and new tools from the field of chemical biology have facilitated exquisite probing of plant PKS iterative catalysis. These tools have also been used to exploit type III PKSs as biocatalysts to generate new chemicals. Going forward, chemical, structural and biochemical analyses will provide an atomic resolution understanding of plant PKSs and will serve as a springboard for bioengineering and scalable production of valuable molecules in vitro, by fermentation and in planta.Current Opinion in Plant Biology 06/2013; 16(3). DOI:10.1016/j.pbi.2013.02.004 · 9.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Polyketides represent an important class of biologically active and structurally diverse compounds in nature. They are synthesized from acyl-coenzyme A substrates by polyketide synthases (PKSs). PKSs are classified into three groups: types I, II, and III. This article introduces recent studies on type III PKSs identified from plants, bacteria, and fungi, and describes the catalytic functions of these enzymes in detail. Plant type III PKSs have been widely studied, as exemplified by chalcone synthase, which plays an important role in the synthesis of plant metabolites. Bacterial type III PKSs fall into five groups, many of which were identified from Streptomyces, a genus that has been well known for its production of bioactive molecules and genetic alterability. Although it was believed that type III PKSs exist exclusively in plants and bacteria, recent fungal genome sequencing projects and biochemical studies revealed the presence of type III PKSs in filamentous fungi, which provides a new chance to study fungal secondary metabolism and synthesize "unnatural" natural products. Type III PKSs have been used for the biosynthesis of novel molecules through precursor-directed and structure-based mutagenesis approaches.International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Life 04/2012; 64(4):285-95. DOI:10.1002/iub.1005 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The structurally and mechanistically simple type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) catalyze iterative condensations of CoA thioesters to produce a variety of polyketide scaffolds with remarkably diverse structures and biological activities. By exploiting the enzymes, we combined precursor-directed biosynthesis with nitrogen-containing substrates and structure-based enzyme engineering and generated unnatural, novel polyketide-alkaloid scaffolds with promising biological activities. The nucleophilic nitrogen atom and the engineered enzymes thus facilitated the formation of additional CC and CN bonds during the enzymatic transformations. The methodology will contribute to the further production of chemically and structurally divergent, unnatural natural products, as well as the rational design of novel biocatalysts with unprecedented catalytic functions.Current opinion in chemical biology 01/2012; 16(1-2):179-85. DOI:10.1016/j.cbpa.2011.12.016 · 7.65 Impact Factor