We have previously shown that SRp55 inhibits splicing from HIV-1 exon 3, thereby generating partially spliced mRNAs encoding HIV-1 vpr. Here we show that SRp55 also inhibits splicing from HIV-1 exon 5 to generate HIV-1 vpu/env mRNA, albeit with lower efficiency. We also show that inhibition of HIV-1 splicing by SRp55 causes the appearance of partially spliced vpu, env and vpr mRNAs in the cytoplasm. SRp55 could also induce production of extracellular p24gag from a rev-defective HIV-1 provirus. These results indicate that SRp55 aids in the generation of partially spliced and unspliced HIV-1 mRNAs.
"Additional rare ‘cryptic’ splice donors (5′ splice sites) and acceptors (3′ splice sites) contribute even more mRNAs (8–13). A complex array of positive and negative cis-acting elements surrounding each splice site regulates the relative abundance of the HIV-1 mRNAs, and disrupting the balance of message ratios impairs viral replication in several models (14–21). Studies have suggested strain-specific splicing patterns may exist (7,22,23). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alternative RNA splicing greatly expands the repertoire of proteins encoded by genomes. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is attractive for studying alternative splicing because of the efficiency and low cost per base, but short reads typical of NGS only report mRNA fragments containing one or few splice junctions. Here, we used single-molecule amplification and long-read sequencing to study the HIV-1 provirus, which is only 9700 bp in length, but encodes nine major proteins via alternative splicing. Our data showed that the clinical isolate HIV-1(89.6) produces at least 109 different spliced RNAs, including a previously unappreciated ∼1 kb class of messages, two of which encode new proteins. HIV-1 message populations differed between cell types, longitudinally during infection, and among T cells from different human donors. These findings open a new window on a little studied aspect of HIV-1 replication, suggest therapeutic opportunities and provide advanced tools for the study of alternative splicing.
Nucleic Acids Research 08/2012; 40(20). DOI:10.1093/nar/gks753 · 9.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tau exon 10, which encodes the second microtubule-binding repeat, is regulated by alternative splicing. Its alternative splicing generates Tau isoforms with three- or four-microtubule-binding repeats, named 3R-tau and 4R-tau. Adult human brain expresses equal levels of 3R-tau and 4R-tau. Imbalance of 3R-tau and 4R-tau causes Tau aggregation and neurofibrillary degeneration. In the present study, we found that splicing factor SRp55 (serine/arginine-rich protein 55) promoted Tau exon 10 inclusion. Knockdown of SRp55 significantly promoted Tau exon 10 exclusion. The promotion of Tau exon 10 inclusion by SRp55 required the arginine/serine-rich region, which was responsible for the subnucleic speckle localization. Dyrk1A (dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylated and regulated kinase 1A) interacted with SRp55 and mainly phosphorylated its proline-rich domain. Phosphorylation of SRp55 by Dyrk1A suppressed its ability to promote Tau exon 10 inclusion. Up-regulation of Dyrk1A as in Down syndrome could lead to neurofibrillary degeneration by shifting the alternative splicing of Tau exon 10 to an increase in the ratio of 3R-tau/4R-tau.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Huntington disease (HD) is a devastating, late-onset, inherited neurodegenerative disorder that manifests with personality changes, movement disorders, and cognitive decline. It is caused by a CAG repeat expansion in exon 1 of the HTT gene that translates to a polyglutamine tract in the huntingtin protein (HTT). The formation of HTT fragments has been implicated as an essential step in the molecular pathogenesis of HD and several proteases that cleave HTT have been identified. However, the importance of smaller N-terminal fragments has been highlighted by their presence in HD postmortem brains and by the fact that nuclear inclusions are only detected by antibodies to the N terminus of HTT. Despite an intense research effort, the precise length of these fragments and the mechanism by which they are generated remains unknown. Here we show that CAG repeat length-dependent aberrant splicing of exon 1 HTT results in a short polyadenylated mRNA that is translated into an exon 1 HTT protein. Given that mutant exon 1 HTT proteins have consistently been shown to be highly pathogenic in HD mouse models, the aberrant splicing of HTT mRNA provides a mechanistic basis for the molecular pathogenesis of HD. RNA-targeted therapeutic strategies designed to lower the levels of HTT are under development. Many of these approaches would not prevent the production of exon 1 HTT and should be reviewed in light of our findings.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2013; 110(6):2366–2370. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1221891110 · 9.67 Impact Factor
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