Rethinking the cognitive revolution from a neural perspective: how overuse/misuse of the term 'cognition' and the neglect of affective controls in behavioral neuroscience could be delaying progress in understanding the BrainMind.
ABSTRACT Words such as cognition, motivation and emotion powerfully guide theory development and the overall aims and goals of behavioral neuroscience research. Once such concepts are accepted generally as natural aspects of the brain, their influence can be pervasive and long lasting. Importantly, the choice of conceptual terms used to describe and study mental/neural functions can also constrain research by forcing the results into seemingly useful 'conceptual' categories that have no discrete reality in the brain. Since the popularly named 'cognitive revolution' in psychological science came to fruition in the early 1970s, the term cognitive or cognition has been perhaps the most widely used conceptual term in behavioral neuroscience. These terms, similar to other conceptual terms, have potential value if utilized appropriately. We argue that recently the term cognition has been both overused and misused. This has led to problems in developing a usable shared definition for the term and to promotion of possible misdirections in research within behavioral neuroscience. In addition, we argue that cognitive-guided research influenced primarily by top-down (cortical toward subcortical) perspectives without concurrent non-cognitive modes of bottom-up developmental thinking, could hinder progress in the search for new treatments and medications for psychiatric illnesses and neurobehavioral disorders. Overall, linkages of animal research insights to human psychology may be better served by bottom-up (subcortical to cortical) affective and motivational 'state-control' perspectives, simply because the lower networks of the brain are foundational for the construction of higher 'information-processing' aspects of mind. Moving forward, rapidly expanding new techniques and creative methods in neuroscience along with more accurate brain concepts, may help guide the development of new therapeutics and hopefully more accurate ways to describe and explain brain-behavior relationships.
- SourceAvailable from: Vassiliki Iliadou[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The scope of this study was to trace of central auditory processing issues in patients with first episode psychosis using a psychoacoustic test battery approach. Patients were included in the study on the basis of normal hearing sensitivity. A central auditory processing battery was implemented consisting of monaural and binaural tests with verbal and non-verbal stimuli. Seventeen control subjects were volunteers with no personal or family history of schizophrenia. Seventeen (17) patients were tested to evaluate central auditory processing abilities. Perceptual deficits in both non-verbal and verbal auditory stimuli are reported in this study with temporal central auditory processing deficits and a mean left ear left ear advantage (LEA) being documented in the patient group. This study points to the possibility of existence of central auditory processing deficits in first episode psychosis leading to schizophrenia. Audiologists should be aware of the psychiatric research pointing to enhanced verbal memory as a result of auditory training; linking bottom-up remediation with top-down improvement.American Journal of Audiology 07/2013; · 0.87 Impact Factor
Dataset: Morris RDoC DCNS 2012
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ABSTRACT: In their article, "Does the autistic child have a 'theory of mind'?," Baron-Cohen et al.  proposed a novel paradigm to explain social impairment in children diagnosed as autistic (AD). Much research has been undertaken since their article went to print. The purpose of this commentary is to gauge whether Theory of Mind (ToM)-or lack thereof-is a valid model for explaining abnormal social behavior in children with AD. ToM is defined as "the ability to impute mental states to oneself and to others" and "the ability to make inferences about what other people believe to be the case." The source for their model was provided by an article published earlier by Premack and Woodruff, "Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind?" Later research in chimpanzees did not support a ToM in primates. From the outset, ToM as a neurocognitive model of autism has had many shortcomings-methodological, logical, and empirical. Other ToM assumptions, for example, its universality in all children in all cultures and socioeconomic conditions, are not supported by data. The age at which a ToM emerges, or events that presage a ToM, are too often not corroborated. Recent studies of mirror neurons, their location and interconnections in brain, their relationship to social behavior and language, and the effect of lesions there on speech, language and social behavior, strongly suggests that a neurobiological as opposed to neurocognitive model of autism is a more parsimonious explanation for the social and behavioral phenotypes observed in autism. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 08/2013; · 2.30 Impact Factor