Engineering a stem cell house into a home

Baxter Laboratory in Stem Cell Biology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
Stem Cell Research & Therapy (Impact Factor: 3.37). 01/2011; 2(1):3. DOI: 10.1186/scrt44
Source: PubMed


In the body, tissue homeostasis is established and maintained by resident tissue-specific adult stem cells (aSCs). Through preservation of bidirectional communications with the surrounding niche and integration of biophysical and biochemical cues, aSCs actively direct the regeneration of aged, injured and diseased tissues. Currently, the ability to guide the behavior and fate of aSCs in the body or in culture after prospective isolation is hindered by our poor comprehension of niche composition and the regulation it imposes. Two-and three-dimensional biomaterials approaches permit systematic analysis of putative niche elements as well as screening approaches to identify novel regulatory mechanisms governing stem cell fate. The marriage of stem cell biology with creative bioengineering technology has the potential to expand our basic understanding of stem cell regulation imposed by the niche and to develop novel regenerative medicine applications.

Download full-text


Available from: Penney Gilbert, Jun 07, 2014
  • Source
    • "For example, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), grown on collagen-coated polyacrylamide gels engineered to mimic the elasticity of tissues, upregulate markers indicative of differentiation towards cells of those tissues (Engler et al., 2006). The elastic modulus of hydrogels has previously been experimentally manipulated by varying acrylamide and bis-acrylamide concentrations (Engler et al., 2004) or the percentage of polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymer in solution (Gilbert and Blau, 2011; Kloxin et al., 2010a, 2010b). Interactions of cells with materials such as alginate (Lee and Mooney, 2012), collagen (Grinnell, 2003), hyaluronic acid (Shu et al., 2002), polyacrylamide (Engler et al., 2006), and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) (Tan et al., 2003) have all been extensively characterized. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Our objective was to characterize the elasticity of hydrogel formulations intended to mimic physical properties that cells and tissues experience in vivo. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM), we tested a variety of concentrations in a variety of biomaterials, including agarose, alginate, the collagens, fibrin, hyaluronic acid, kerateine, laminin, Matrigel, polyacrylamide, polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) and silicone elastomer (polydimethylsiloxane). Manipulations of the concentration of biomaterials were detectable in AFM measurements of elasticity (Young's modulus, E), and E tended to increase with increased concentration. Depending on the biomaterials chosen, and their concentrations, generation of tunable biocompatible hydrogels in the physiologic range is possible.
    07/2013; 27. DOI:10.1016/j.jmbbm.2013.07.008
  • Source
    • "However, this potential diminished in vitro even after a limited expansion [2], [41], [42]. This so far has restricted their clinical application and, despite various studies which have focused on mimicking SC niche conditions [43], [44], it is still a matter of debate which culture condition may favour the maintenance of stemness of SCs during expansion. Moreover, SCs are heterogeneous in their proliferative and myogenic potentials [23], [37], [45]–[54]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Satellite cells (SCs) are essential for postnatal muscle growth and regeneration, however, their expansion potential in vitro is limited. Recently, hypoxia has been used to enhance proliferative abilities in vitro of various primary cultures. Here, by isolating SCs from single mouse hindlimb skeletal myofibers, we were able to distinguish two subpopulations of clonally cultured SCs (Low Proliferative Clones - LPC - and High Proliferative Clones - HPC), which, as shown in rat skeletal muscle, were present at a fixed proportion. In addition, culturing LPC and HPC at a low level of oxygen we observed a two fold increased proliferation both for LPC and HPC. LPC showed higher myogenic regulatory factor (MRF) expression than HPC, particularly under the hypoxic condition. Notably, a different myogenic potential between LPC and HPC was retained in vivo: green fluorescent protein (GFP)+LPC transplantation in cardiotoxin-injured Tibialis Anterior led to a higher number of new GFP+muscle fibers per transplanted cell than GFP+HPC. Interestingly, the in vivo myogenic potential of a single cell from an LPC is similar if cultured both in normoxia and hypoxia. Therefore, starting from a single satellite cell, hypoxia allows a larger expansion of LPC than normal O(2) conditions, obtaining a consistent amount of cells for transplantation, but maintaining their myogenic regeneration potential.
    PLoS ONE 11/2012; 7(11):e49860. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0049860 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Several clinical applications have been suggested: cystic fibrosis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, chronic obstructive lung disease, pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary edema, and pulmonary hypertension. Clinical applications so far are few, but include subglottic stenosis, tracheomalacia, bronchiomalacia, and emphysema [32-35]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In lung fibrosis, alveolar epithelium degenerates progressively. The goal of regenerative medicine is to aid repair and regeneration of the lost tissues in parenchyma and airways for which mobilization of tissue-resident endogenous or bone marrow-derived exogenous stem cells niches is a critical step. We used a lung injury model in mice to identify and characterize functional lung stem cells to clarify how stem cell niches counteract this degenerative process. Short term assay (STA) - Bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis were assessed in a model of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in wild-type (WT), gp91phox-/- (NOX-/-), and gp91phoxMMP-12 double knockout (DKO) mice on C57Bl/6 background and Hoechst 33322 dye effluxing side population (SP) cells characterized. Long term assay (LTA) - In a bleomycin induced lung fibrosis model in C57Bl6 mice, the number of mature cells were quantified over 7, 14, and 21 days in bone marrow (BM), peripheral blood (PB), lung parenchyma (LP) and brochoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid by FACS. BrdU pulse chase experiment (10 weeks) was used to identify label retaining cells (LRC). BrdU+ and BrdU- cells were characterized by hematopoietic (CD45+), pluripotency (TTF1+, Oct3/4+, SSEA-3+, SSEA-4+, Sca1+, Lin-, CD34+, CD31+), and lung lineage-specific (SPC+, AQP-5+, CC-10+) markers. Clonogenic potential of LRCs were measured by CFU-c assays. STA- In lung, cellularity increased by 5-fold in WT and 6-fold in NOX-/- by d7. Lung epithelial markers were very low in expression in all SP flow sorted from lung of all three genotypes cultured ex vivo. (p < 0.01). Post-bleomycin, the SP in NOX-/- lung increased by 3.6-fold over WT where it increased by 20-fold over controls. Type I and II alveolar epithelial cells progressively diminished in all three genotypes by d21 post-bleomycin. D7 post-bleomycin, CD45+ cells in BALf in NOX-/- was 1.7-fold > WT, 57% of which were Mf that decreased by 67% in WT and 83% in NOX-/- by d21.LTA- Cellularity as a factor of time remained unchanged in BM, PB, LP and BAL fluid. BrdU+ (LRC) were the putative stem cells. BrdU+CD45+ cells increased by 0.7-fold and SPC+CC10+ bronchoalveolar stem cells (BASC), decreased by ~40-fold post-bleomycin. BrdU+VEGF+ cells decreased by 1.8-fold while BrdU-VEGF+ cells increased 4.6-fold. Most BrdU- cells were CD45-. BrdU- BASCs remained unchanged post-bleomycin. CFU-c of the flow-sorted BrdU+ cells remained similar in control and bleomycin-treated lungs. STA- Inflammation is a pre-requisite for fibrosis; SP cells, being the putative stem cells in the lungs, were increased (either by self renewal or by recruitment from the exogenous bone marrow pool) post-bleomycin in NOX-/- but not in DKO indicating the necessity of cross-talk between gp91phox and MMP-12 in this process; ex vivo cultured SP progressively lose pluripotent markers, notably BASC (SPC+CC10+) - significance is unknown. LTA- The increase in the hematopoietic progenitor pool in lung indicated that exogenous progenitors from circulation contribute to lung regeneration. Most non-stem cells were non-hematopoietic in origin indicating that despite tissue turnover, BASCs are drastically depleted possibly necessitating recruitment of progenitors from the hematopoietic pool. Loss of VEGF+ LRC may indicate a signal for progenitor mobilization from niches. BrdU- BASC population may be a small quiescent population that remains as a reserve for more severe lung injury. Increase in VEGF+ non-LRC may indicate a checkpoint to counterbalance the mobilization of VEGF+ cells from the stem cell niche.
    Stem Cell Research & Therapy 05/2012; 3(3):21. DOI:10.1186/scrt112 · 3.37 Impact Factor
Show more