HIV-2 Infection, End-Stage Renal Disease and Protease Inhibitor Intolerance
ABSTRACT Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and enfuvirtide are ineffective against HIV-2 replication. These considerations may have particular significance in the formulation of second-line or salvage regimens for HIV-2 infection when resistance or toxicity precludes the use of protease inhibitors (PIs) or specific nucleoside analogues. We describe a case of a treatment-experienced patient with important limitations in therapeutic options dictated by the presence of HIV-2 infection, severe HIV nephropathy (requiring haemodialysis), intolerance to PIs and clinical contraindications to the use of some nucleoside analogues (anaemia, pancreatic toxicity and high cardiovascular risk). A three-drug regimen based on raltegravir, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and lamivudine was given, with no major toxicity, good immunological response and complete viral suppression. Our case indicates that regimens based on integrase inhibitors could represent an effective alternative in PI-resistant or PI-intolerant patients with HIV-2, and that tenofovir disoproxil fumarate may be used in patients with end-stage renal disease requiring haemodialysis who cannot take other nucleoside analogues because of treatment-limiting adverse effects.
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ABSTRACT: Dolutegravir recently became the third integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) approved for use in HIV-1-infected individuals. In contrast to the extensive dataset for HIV-1, in vitro studies and clinical reports of dolutegravir for HIV-2 are limited. To evaluate the potential role of dolutegravir in HIV-2 treatment, we compared the susceptibilities of wild-type and INSTI-resistant HIV-1 and HIV-2 strains to the drug using single-cycle assays, spreading infections of immortalized T cells, and site-directed mutagenesis. HIV-2 group A, HIV-2 group B, and HIV-1 isolates from INSTI-naïve individuals were comparably sensitive to dolutegravir in the single-cycle assay (mean EC50 values = 1.9, 2.6, and 1.3 nM, respectively). Integrase substitutions E92Q, Y143C, E92Q + Y143C, and Q148R conferred relatively low levels of resistance to dolutegravir in HIV-2ROD9 (2- to 6-fold), but Q148K, E92Q + N155H, T97A + N155H and G140S + Q148R resulted in moderate resistance (10- to 46-fold), and the combination of T97A + Y143C in HIV-2ROD9 conferred high-level resistance (>5000-fold). In contrast, HIV-1NL4-3 mutants E92Q + N155H, G140S + Q148R, and T97A + Y143C showed 2-fold, 4-fold, and no increase in EC50, respectively, relative to the parental strain. The resistance phenotypes for E92Q + N155H, and G140S + Q148R HIV-2ROD9 were also confirmed in spreading infections of CEM-ss cells. Our data support the use of dolutegravir in INSTI-naïve HIV-2 patients but suggest that, relative to HIV-1, a broader array of replacements in HIV-2 integrase may enable cross-resistance between dolutegravir and other INSTI. Clinical studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of dolutegravir in HIV-2-infected individuals, including patients previously treated with raltegravir or elvitegravir.Retrovirology 12/2015; 12(1). DOI:10.1186/s12977-015-0146-8 · 4.77 Impact Factor
AIDS (London, England) 09/2014; 28(15):2329-2331. DOI:10.1097/QAD.0000000000000414 · 6.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We describe five patients with HIV-2 infection (four antiretroviral-experienced and one antiretroviral-naive) treated with a regimen containing raltegravir. All responded to treatment as demonstrated by viral load and CD4(+) T-cell count monitoring. Our series confirms the clinical effectiveness of raltegravir in HIV-2-infected patients when given with other antiretrovirals to which the virus is susceptible.Antiviral therapy 08/2012; 17(6):1097-100. DOI:10.3851/IMP2303 · 3.14 Impact Factor