HIV-2 Infection, End-Stage Renal Disease and Protease Inhibitor Intolerance

Clinic of Infectious Diseases, Department of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical Sciences, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy.
Clinical Drug Investigation (Impact Factor: 1.56). 02/2011; 31(5):345-9. DOI: 10.2165/11539940-000000000-00000
Source: PubMed


Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and enfuvirtide are ineffective against HIV-2 replication. These considerations may have particular significance in the formulation of second-line or salvage regimens for HIV-2 infection when resistance or toxicity precludes the use of protease inhibitors (PIs) or specific nucleoside analogues. We describe a case of a treatment-experienced patient with important limitations in therapeutic options dictated by the presence of HIV-2 infection, severe HIV nephropathy (requiring haemodialysis), intolerance to PIs and clinical contraindications to the use of some nucleoside analogues (anaemia, pancreatic toxicity and high cardiovascular risk). A three-drug regimen based on raltegravir, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and lamivudine was given, with no major toxicity, good immunological response and complete viral suppression. Our case indicates that regimens based on integrase inhibitors could represent an effective alternative in PI-resistant or PI-intolerant patients with HIV-2, and that tenofovir disoproxil fumarate may be used in patients with end-stage renal disease requiring haemodialysis who cannot take other nucleoside analogues because of treatment-limiting adverse effects.

7 Reads
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The development of multiple agents with potent antiretroviral activity against HIV has ushered in a new age of optimism in the management of patients infected with the virus. However, the viruses' dynamic ability to develop resistance against these agents necessitates the investigation of novel targets for viral suppression. Raltegravir represents a first-in-class agent targeting the HIV integrase enzyme, which is responsible for integration of virally encoded DNA into the host genome. Over the last 5 years, clinical trials data has demonstrated an increasing role for raltegravir in the management of both treatment-experienced and treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected patients. This review focuses on the evidence supporting raltegravir's efficacy in an array of clinical settings. Other HIV-1 integrase inhibitors in development are also briefly discussed.
    HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care 07/2011; 3:81-92. DOI:10.2147/HIV.S13985
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Many of the antiretrovirals used against HIV-1 are either ineffective or less effective in HIV-2 infection. There is in vitro evidence of the potency of maraviroc and several investigational agents against HIV-2. We conclude that, whilst specific boosted protease inhibitors combined with nucleoside analogues should still be considered the mainstays of HIV-2 treatment, maraviroc, T-1249, TAK-779 and AMD3100, as well as raltegravir, could contribute to regimens for treatment-experienced individuals. Factors bearing on the use and timing of these alternative agents are discussed.
    Antiviral therapy 01/2012; 17(3):435-8. DOI:10.3851/IMP2031 · 3.02 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We describe five patients with HIV-2 infection (four antiretroviral-experienced and one antiretroviral-naive) treated with a regimen containing raltegravir. All responded to treatment as demonstrated by viral load and CD4(+) T-cell count monitoring. Our series confirms the clinical effectiveness of raltegravir in HIV-2-infected patients when given with other antiretrovirals to which the virus is susceptible.
    Antiviral therapy 08/2012; 17(6):1097-100. DOI:10.3851/IMP2303 · 3.02 Impact Factor
Show more