Kinetically Controlled Cellular Interactions of Polymer-Polymer and Polymer-Liposome Nanohybrid Systems

Departments of †Biopharmaceutical Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
Bioconjugate Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.82). 02/2011; 22(3):466-74. DOI: 10.1021/bc100484t
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Although bioactive polymers such as cationic polymers have demonstrated potential as drug carriers and nonviral gene delivery vectors, high toxicity and uncontrolled, instantaneous cellular interactions of those vectors have hindered the successful implementation In Vivo. Fine control over the cellular interactions of a potential drug/gene delivery vector would be thus desirable. Herein, we have designed nanohybrid systems (100-150 nm in diameter) that combine the polycations with protective outer layers consisting of biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) or liposomes. A commonly used polycation polyethylenimine (PEI) was employed after conjugation with rhodamine (RITC). The PEI-RITC conjugates were then encapsulated into (i) polymeric NPs made of either poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) or poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PEG-PLGA); or (ii) PEGylated liposomes, resulting in three nanohybrid systems. Through the nanohybridization, both cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of the nanohybrids were kinetically controlled. The cytotoxicity assay using MCF-7 cells revealed that liposome-based nanohybrids exhibited the least toxicity, followed by PEG-PLGA- and PLGA-based NPs after 24 h incubation. The different kinetics of cellular uptake was also observed, the liposome-based systems being the fastest and PLGA-based systems being the slowest. The results present a potential delivery platform with enhanced control over its biological interaction kinetics and passive targeting capability through size control.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nanoparticle (NP)-based drug delivery platforms have received a great deal of attention over the past two decades for their potential in targeted cancer therapies. Despite the promises, passive targeting approaches utilizing relatively larger NPs (typically 50-200nm in diameter) allow for passive tumor accumulation, but hinder efficient intratumoral penetration. Conversely, smaller, actively targeted NPs (<20nm in diameter) penetrate well into the tumor mass, but are limited by their rapid systemic elimination. To overcome these limitations, we have designed a multi-scale hybrid NP platform that loads smaller poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers (~5nm in diameter) into larger poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(D,L-lactide) (PEG-PLA) NPs (~70nm). A biodistribution study in healthy mice revealed that the hybrid NPs circulated longer than free dendrimers and were mostly cleared by macrophages in the liver and spleen, similar to the in vivo behavior of PEG-PLA NPs. When injected intravenously into the BALB/c athymic nude mice bearing folate receptor (FR)-overexpressing KB xenograft, the targeted hybrid NPs encapsulating folate (FA)-targeted dendrimers achieved longer plasma circulation than free dendrimers and higher tumor concentrations than both free dendrimers and the empty PEG-PLA NPs. These results suggest that the hybrid NPs successfully combine the in vivo advantages of dendrimers and polymeric NPs, demonstrating their potential as a new, modular platform for drug delivery.
    Journal of Controlled Release 05/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jconrel.2014.05.006 · 7.26 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Pancreatic cancer remains the deadliest of all cancers, with a mortality rate of 91%. Gemcitabine is considered the gold chemotherapeutic standard, but only marginally improves life-span due to its chemical instability and low cell penetrance. A new paradigm to improve Gemcitabine’s therapeutic index is to administer it in nanoparticles, which favour its delivery to cells when under 500 nm in diameter. Although promising, this approach still suffers from major limitations, as the choice of nanovector used as well as its effects on Gemcitabine intracellular trafficking inside pancreatic cancer cells remain unknown. A proper elucidation of these mechanisms would allow for the elaboration of better strategies to engineer more potent Gemcitabine nanotherapeutics against pancreatic cancer. Methods Gemcitabine was encapsulated in two types of commonly used nanovectors, namely poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and cholesterol-based liposomes, and their physico-chemical parameters assessed in vitro. Their mechanisms of action in human pancreatic cells were compared with those of the free drug, and with each others, using cytotoxity, apoptosis and ultrastructural analyses. Results Physico-chemical analyses of both drugs showed high loading efficiencies and sizes of less than 200 nm, as assessed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), with a drug release profile of at least one week. These profiles translated to significant cytotoxicity and apoptosis, as well as distinct intracellular trafficking mechanisms, which were most pronounced in the case of PLGem showing significant mitochondrial, cytosolic and endoplasmic reticulum stresses. Conclusions Our study demonstrates how the choice of nanovector affects the mechanisms of drug action and is a crucial determinant of Gemcitabine intracellular trafficking and potency in pancreatic cancer settings.
    BMC Cancer 09/2012; 12(1). DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-12-419 · 3.32 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. Current treatment modalities include a combination of surgery and chemotherapy, which often lead to loss of fertility in premenopausal women and a myriad of systemic side effects. To address these issues, we have designed poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers to selectively target the follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), which is overexpressed by tumorigenic ovarian cancer cells but not by immature primordial follicles and other non-tumorigenic cells. Fluorescein-labeled generation 5 (G5) PAMAM dendrimers were conjugated with the binding peptide domain of FSH (FSH33) that has a high affinity to FSHR. The targeted dendrimers exhibited high receptor selectivity to FSHR-expressing OVCAR-3 cells, resulting in significant uptake and downregulation of an anti-apoptotic protein survivin, while showing minimal interactions with SKOV-3 cells that do not express FSHR. The selectivity of the FSH33-targeted dendrimers was further validated in 3D organ cultures of normal mouse ovaries. Immunostaining of the conjugates revealed their selective binding and uptake by ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) cells that express FSHR, while sparing the immature primordial follicles. In addition, an in vivo study monitoring tissue accumulation following a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of the conjugates showed significantly higher accumulation of FSH33-targeted dendrimers in the ovary and oviduct compared to the non-targeted conjugates. These proof-of-concept findings highlight the potential of these FSH33-targeted dendrimers to serve as a delivery platform for anti-ovarian cancer drugs, while reducing their systemic side effects by preventing nonspecific uptake by the primordial follicles.
    Nanoscale 01/2014; 6(5). DOI:10.1039/c3nr05042d · 6.74 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 28, 2014