RhoB links PDGF signaling to cell migration by coordinating activation and localization of Cdc42 and Rac

Lankenau Institute for Medical Research, Wynnewood, Pennsylvania 19096, USA.
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry (Impact Factor: 3.37). 06/2011; 112(6):1572-84. DOI: 10.1002/jcb.23069
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The small GTPase RhoB regulates endocytic trafficking of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and the non-receptor kinases Src and Akt. While receptor-mediated endocytosis is critical for signaling processes driving cell migration, mechanisms that coordinate endocytosis with the propagation of migratory signals remain relatively poorly understood. In this study, we show that RhoB is essential for activation and trafficking of the key migratory effectors Cdc42 and Rac in mediating the ability of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) to stimulate cell movement. Stimulation of the PDGF receptor-β on primary vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) results in RhoB-dependent trafficking of endosome-bound Cdc42 from the perinuclear region to the cell periphery, where the RhoGEF Vav2 and Rac are also recruited to drive formation of circular dorsal and peripheral ruffles necessary for cell migration. Our findings identify a novel RhoB-dependent endosomal trafficking pathway that integrates RTK endocytosis with Cdc42/Rac localization and cell movement.

Download full-text


Available from: George C Prendergast, Jul 01, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cell migration is a complex biological process that is under the tight control of diverse signaling events. While many of the involved signaling molecules diffuse rapidly within cells, it now seems that certain key regulators of cell migration prefer to travel on endosomes. In this review we will discuss the multiple roles of signaling endosomes in regulation of local migration stimuli, dynamics of focal adhesions, cell contractility and locomotion.
    Current opinion in cell biology 05/2011; 23(5):615-20. DOI:10.1016/ · 8.74 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) migration is characterized by extension of the lamellipodia at the leading edge, lamellipodial attachment to substrate, and release of the rear (uropod) of the cell, all of which enable forward movement. However, little is known regarding the role of intracellular cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in coordinating these distinct activities of migrating SMCs. The objective of our study was to determine whether regional changes of Ca(2+) orchestrate the migratory cycle in human vascular SMCs. We carried out Ca(2+) imaging using digital fluorescence microscopy of fura-2 loaded human smooth muscle cells. We found that motile SMCs exhibited Ca(2+) waves that characteristically swept from the rear of polarized cells toward the leading edge. Ca(2+) waves were less evident in nonpolarized, stationary cells, although acute stimulation of these SMCs with the agonists platelet-derived growth factor-BB or histamine could elicit transient rise of [Ca(2+)](i). To investigate a role for Ca(2+) waves in the migratory cycle, we loaded cells with the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA, which abolished Ca(2+) waves and significantly reduced retraction, supporting a causal role for Ca(2+) in initiation of retraction. However, lamellipod motility was still evident in BAPTA-loaded cells. The incidence of Ca(2+) oscillations was reduced when Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores was disrupted with the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin or by treatment with the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor blocker 2-aminoethoxy-diphenyl borate or xestospongin C, implicating Ca(2+) stores in generation of waves. We conclude that Ca(2+) waves are essential for migration of human vascular SMCs and can encode cell polarity.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 05/2011; 301(2):H315-23. DOI:10.1152/ajpheart.00355.2010 · 4.01 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Endocytosis is increasingly understood to play crucial roles in most signaling pathways, from determining which signaling components are activated, to how the signal is subsequently transduced and/or terminated. Whether a receptor-ligand complex is internalized via a clathrin-dependent or clathrin-independent endocytic route, and the complexes' subsequent trafficking through specific endocytic compartments, to then be recycled or degraded, has profound effects on signaling output. This review discusses the roles of endocytosis in three markedly different signaling pathways: the Wnt, Notch, and Eph/Ephrin pathways. These offer fundamentally different signaling systems: (1) diffusible ligands inducing signaling in one cell, (2) membrane-tethered ligands inducing signaling in a contacting receptor cell, and (3) bi-directional receptor-ligand signaling in two contacting cells. In each of these systems, endocytosis controls signaling in fascinating ways, and comparison of their similarities and dissimilarities will help to expand our understanding of endocytic control of signal transduction across multiple signaling pathways.
    Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 11/2011; 69(11):1755-71. DOI:10.1007/s00018-011-0877-1 · 5.86 Impact Factor