Distribution of glycine immunoreactivity in the brain of the Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baeri): Comparison with γ-aminobutyric acid
ABSTRACT Glycine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are the main inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system (CNS) of vertebrates. Studies on the distribution of glycinergic neurons and fibers have been carried out mainly in rodents and lampreys. With the aim of discovering more about the early evolution of this system in vertebrates, we analyzed the distribution of glycine-immunoreactive (Gly-ir) neurons and fibers in the CNS of a basal ray-finned fish, the Siberian sturgeon (Chondrostei, Acipenseriformes), by use of immunohistochemical techniques. We also compared the distribution of glycine and GABA by the use of double-immunofluorescence techniques and confocal microscopy. Our results revealed the presence of Gly-ir cells in different regions of the CNS, such as olfactory bulbs, preoptic area, hypothalamus, thalamus, pretectum, optic tectum, tegmentum and rostral spinal cord, although most of the Gly-ir cells and the most intensely immunoreactive cells were located in the rhombencephalon, mainly in the octavolateral area and reticular formation. In addition, coronet cells of the basal hypothalamus and saccus vasculosus were Gly-ir. Glycinergic fibers coursed along most brain regions and were more abundant in the thalamus, hypothalamus, optic tectum, tegmentum, isthmic region, and basal rhombencephalon. The Mauthner cell perikaryon was richly innervated by Gly-ir boutons, as reported for teleosts. With regard to the colocalization of glycine and GABA, double-immunoreactive cells were located mainly in the rhombencephalon. The results enable us to conclude that the distribution of glycine in the sturgeon brain is more similar to that observed in lampreys than that observed in mammals.
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ABSTRACT: Glycine is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system of vertebrates. Here, we report the initial development of glycine-immunoreactive (Gly-ir) neurons and fibers in zebrafish. The earliest Gly-ir cells were found in the hindbrain and rostral spinal cord by 20 hours post-fertilization (hpf). Gly-ir cells in rhombomeres 5 and 6 that also expressed glycine transporter 2 (glyt2) mRNA were highly stereotyped; they were bilaterally located and their axons ran across the midline and gradually turned caudally, joining the medial longitudinal fascicles in the spinal cord by 24 hpf. Gly-ir neurons in rhombomere 5 were uniquely identified, since there was one per hemisegment, whereas the number of Gly-ir neurons in rhombomere 6 were variable from one to three per hemisegment. Labeling of these neurons by single-cell electroporation and tracing them until the larval stage revealed that they became MiD2cm and MiD3cm respectively. The retrograde labeling of reticulo-spinal neurons in Tg(glyt2:gfp) larva, which express GFP in Gly-ir cells, and a genetic mosaic analysis with glyt2:GFP DNA construct also supported this notion. Gly-ir cells were also distributed widely in the anterior brain by 27 hpf, whereas glyt2 was hardly expressed. Double staining with anti-glycine and anti-GABA antibodies demonstrated distinct distributions of Gly-ir and GABA-ir cells, as well as the presence of doubly immunoreactive cells in the brain and placodes. These results provide evidence of identifiable glycinergic (Gly-ir/glyt2-positive) neurons in vertebrate embryos, and they can be used in further studies of the neurons' development and function at the single-cell level. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2013.Developmental Neurobiology 06/2014; 74(6). DOI:10.1002/dneu.22158 · 4.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We studied the organization of Met-enkephalin-containing cells and fibers in the developing preoptic-hypophyseal system of the brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) by immunohistochemistry and determined the relationship of these cells and fibers to the galaninergic and GABAergic systems. Met-enkephalin immunoreactivity was observed in cells in the preoptic area, the hypothalamus and the pituitary of late larvae. In the hypophysis, a few Met-enkephalin-containing cells were present in all divisions of the adenohypophysis, and some immunoreactive fibers were present in the interdigitations of the neural lobe with the proximal pars distalis. Concurrently, GABAergic fibers innervated the anterior and posterior neural lobe. Galanin cells coexisted with Met-enkephalin cells in neuronal groups of the preoptic-hypophyseal system. Galaninergic and GABAergic fibers innervated the preoptic and hypothalamic areas, but GABAergic fibers containing galanin were not observed. These results indicate that Met-enkephalin, galanin and GABA may modulate neuroendocrine activities in the preoptic area, hypothalamus and pituitary during the transition from larval to juvenile period. To better know how the development of the trout preoptic-hypophyseal system takes place, we studied the patterns of cell proliferation and expression of Pax6, a conserved transcription factor involved in the hypophysis development. Pax6 expressing cells and proliferating cells were present in the Rathke's pouch, the hypothalamus and the hypophysis of early larvae. In late larvae, Pax6 expression was no longer observed in these areas, and the density of proliferating cells largely decreased throughout development, although they remained in the hypophysis of late larvae and juveniles, suggesting that Pax6 might play an important role in the early regionalization of the pituitary in the trout.General and Comparative Endocrinology 05/2011; 173(1):148-58. DOI:10.1016/j.ygcen.2011.05.012 · 2.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chondrosteans represent an ancient lineage in ray-finned bony fishes and hence in jawed vertebrates. This immunohistochemical study in the brain of the Siberian sturgeon reports the neuronal distribution of three cytosolic calcium-binding proteins: calbindin-D28k (CB), calretinin (CR), and parvalbumin (PV). CB and CR are widely expressed in different neuron subsets distributed throughout the sturgeon brain. Studies using double immunofluorescence reveal a wide co-distribution of CB and CR in the brain nuclei but scarce co-localization at cellular level. In the forebrain, CR- and CB-immunoreactive (ir) populations were observed in the olfactory bulbs, in pallial and subpallial telencephalic areas, and in some diencephalic nuclei. CR-ir cells were also observed in the posterior tubercle and CB-ir cells in the preglomerular complex. At midbrain and hindbrain basal levels, CB-ir and CR-ir cell bodies were mainly distributed in periventricular areas. In the cerebellum, CB and CR cells were co-localized in some granular cell subsets in laterodorsal and dorsolateral regions, and in some Purkinje-like cells. CB-ir and CR-ir fibers were mainly observed in the olfactory bulbs, hypothalamus, and habenula, and in fiber tracts that coursed in the optic tectum and through the mesencephalic and rhombencephalic basal areas. With regard to PV, the sturgeon brain showed a rather limited distribution of PV-ir perikarya and fibers. Thus, CR, CB, and PV allowed the identification of subpopulations of neurons not distinguished on the basis of cytoarchitecture alone, which provided a better understanding of the anatomical organization of the sturgeon brain. These results reveal numerous shared features with teleosts, but also important differences.The Journal of Comparative Neurology 07/2012; 520(10):2086-122. DOI:10.1002/cne.23030 · 3.51 Impact Factor