Peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) and citrullinated proteins have emerged as key molecules in various human diseases, but detailed subcellular localizations of PAD2 and citrullinated proteins are poorly mapped in brain under normal and pathologic conditions. We performed subcellular fractionation and electron microscopic analysis using brains of normal and scrapie-infected mice. Peptidylarginine deiminase 2 was abundantly present in cytosol and weakly in microsomal and mitochondrial fractions and expression in these fractions was higher in brains of scrapie-infected mice. Despite relatively low PAD2 expression, in microsomal and mitochondrial fractions, citrullinated proteins were present at high levels in these fractions in scrapie-infected brains. Surprisingly, increased PAD2 expression and accumulated citrullinated proteins were also found in nuclear fractions in scrapie-infected brains. By electron microscopy, PAD2 and citrullinated proteins in scrapie-infected brains were widely distributed in most cellular compartments including mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, glial filaments, nuclei, and Golgi apparatus in astrocytes and hippocampal neurons. Taken together, we report for the first time the nuclear localization of PAD2 and the detailed subcellular localization of PAD2 and of citrullinated proteins in scrapie-infected brains. Our findings suggest that different subcellular compartmentalization of PAD2 and citrullinated proteins may have different physiological roles in normal and neurodegenerative conditions.
"Citrullination is carried out by a family of calcium-dependent enzymes , peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) that have different tissue distributions, often overlapping, and are believed to have distinct substrate specificity      . PAD activity has been reported in the cytoplasm , including mitochondrial and microsomal fractions, as well as in the nucleus . Among the known PAD substrates are cytoskeletal proteins and histones  . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PADs (peptidylarginine deiminases) are calcium-dependent enzymes that change protein-bound arginine to citrulline (citrullination/deimination) affecting protein conformation and function. PAD up-regulation following chick spinal cord injury has been linked to extensive tissue damage and loss of regenerative capability. Having found that human neural stem cells (hNSCs) expressed PAD2 and PAD3, we studied PAD function in these cells and investigated PAD3 as a potential target for neuroprotection by mimicking calcium-induced secondary injury responses. We show that PAD3, rather than PAD2 is a modulator of cell growth/death and that PAD activity is not associated with caspase-3-dependent cell death, but is required for AIF (apoptosis inducing factor)-mediated apoptosis. PAD inhibition prevents association of PAD3 with AIF and AIF cleavage required for its translocation to the nucleus. Finally, PAD inhibition also hinders calcium-induced cytoskeleton disassembly and association of PAD3 with vimentin, that we show to be associated also with AIF; together this suggests that PAD-dependent cytoskeleton disassembly may play a role in AIF translocation to the nucleus. This is the first study highlighting a role of PAD activity in balancing hNSC survival/death, identifying PAD3 as an important upstream regulator of calcium-induced apoptosis, which could be targeted to reduce neural loss, and shedding light on the mechanisms involved.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research 06/2014; 1843(6). DOI:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2014.02.018 · 5.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The citrullination of enolase by PAD (peptidylarginine deiminase) has emerged as an important post-translational modification in human disorders; however, the physiological function of citrullination remains unknown. In the present study, we report that citrullination diversely regulates the biological functions of ENO1 (α-enolase) and NSE (neuron-specific enolase). We developed three mouse IgG1 monoclonal antibodies with specificity to the following: (i) citrullination of Arg9 of ENO1 [ENO1Cit9; anti-CE1 (citrullinated enolase 1) antibody]; (ii) citrullination of Arg9 in ENO1 and NSE (ENO1Cit9/NSECit9; anti-CE1/2 antibody); and (iii) citrullination of Arg429 of NSE (NSECit429; anti-CE2 antibody). Regardless of the total protein expression level, the levels of ENO1Cit9 and NSECit429 were elevated, and their immunoreactivities were also increased in cortical neuronal cells or around blood vessels in the frontal cortex of patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and Alzheimer's disease compared with controls. In a time- and dose-dependent manner, PAD negatively regulated enolase activity via citrullination, and enolase in diseased patients was more inactive than in controls. Interestingly, the citrullination of enolase effectively promoted its proteolytic degradation by Ca2+-dependent calpain-1, and leupeptin (calpain inhibitor I) abrogated this degradation. Surprisingly, using an affinity assay, the citrullination of enolase enhanced its plasminogen-binding affinity, which was blocked by the lysine analogue ϵ-aminocaproic acid. These findings suggest that PAD-mediated citrullination regulates the diverse physiological activities of enolase and that CE may be a candidate diagnostic/prognostic factor for degenerative diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The post-translational citrullination (deimination) process is mediated by peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs), which convert peptidylarginine into peptidylcitrulline in the presence of high calcium concentrations. Over the past decade, PADs and protein citrullination have been commonly implicated as abnormal pathological features in neurodegeneration and inflammatory responses associated with diseases such as multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Based on this evidence, we investigated the roles of PADs and citrullination in the pathogenesis of prion diseases. Prion diseases (also known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies) are fatal neurodegenerative diseases that are pathologically well characterized as the accumulation of disease-associated misfolded prion proteins, spongiform changes, glial cell activation and neuronal loss. We previously demonstrated that the upregulation of PAD2, mainly found in reactive astrocytes of infected brains, leads to excessive citrullination, which is correlated with disease progression. Further, we demonstrated that various cytoskeletal and energy metabolism-associated proteins are particularly vulnerable to citrullination. Our recent in vivo and in vitro studies elicited altered functions of enolase as the result of citrullination; these altered functions included reduced enzyme activity, increased protease sensitivity and enhanced plasminogen-binding affinity. These findings suggest that PAD2 and citrullinated proteins may play a key role in the brain pathology of prion diseases. By extension, we believe that abnormal increases in protein citrullination may be strong evidence of neurodegeneration.
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