Targeting Immune Dysregulation in Myelodysplastic Syndromes
ABSTRACT Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of bone marrow disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis and a tendency to develop leukemia. In some patients, laboratory and clinical evidence supports a role for the immune system in the pathogenesis of early MDS. Many younger patients who respond to immunosuppressive therapy with drugs such as antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporine have clonal expansions of cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells that suppress normal hematopoiesis, as well as expansion of CD4(+) helper T-cell subsets that promote and sustain autoimmunity. Immunosuppressive therapy can produce hematologic responses in some patients and may improve survival and halt leukemic progression. In this report, we describe a 56-year-old woman who presented with fatigue and easy bruising, eventually became pancytopenic, and was diagnosed with MDS. After treatment with a clinical protocol using alemtuzumab, an anti-CD52 antibody, her blood cell counts returned to normal and she has remained in complete remission for more than 2 years of follow-up. In this article, we review the pathobiology of immune dysregulation in MDS and summarize the role of immunosuppressive therapy in MDS.
- SourceAvailable from: onlinelibrary.wiley.com[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: AbstractBACKGROUND:Although most patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) exhibit bone marrow hypercellularity, a subset of them present with a hypocellular bone marrow. Specific factors associated with poor prognosis have not been investigated in patients with hypocellular MDS. METHODS:The authors studied a cohort of 253 patients with hypocellular MDS diagnosed at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center between 1993 and 2007 and a cohort of 1725 patients with hyper‐/normocellular MDS diagnosed during the same time period. RESULTS:Patients with hypocellular MDS presented more frequently with thrombocytopenia (P P P P P = .02) compared with patients with hyper‐/normocellular MDS. However, no difference in overall survival was observed between the 2 groups (P = .28). Multivariate analysis identified poor performance status (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group ≥2), low hemoglobin (600 IU/L) as adverse independent factors for survival. CONCLUSIONS:A new prognostic model based on these factors was built that segregated patients into 3 distinct risk categories independent of International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) score. This model is independent from the IPSS, further refines IPSS‐based prognostication, and may be used to develop of risk‐adapted therapeutic approaches for patients with hypocellular MDS. Cancer 2012. © 2012 American Cancer Society.Cancer 09/2012; 118(18). · 4.90 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The mechanism of clinical action for the FDA approved hypomethylating drugs azacitidine and decitabine remains unresolved and in this context the potential immunomodulatory effect of these agents on leukemic cells is an area of active investigation. Induced expression of methylated Cancer Testis Antigen (CTA) genes has been demonstrated in leukemic cell lines following exposure to hypomethylating drugs in vitro. SGI-110 is a novel hypomethylating dinucleotide with prolonged in vivo exposure and clinical activity in patients with MDS and AML. We demonstrate that this agent, like decitabine, produces robust re-expression of the CTAs NY-ESO-1 and MAGE-A, both in vitro and in leukemia-bearing AML xenografts. Upregulation of these genes in vitro was sufficient to induce cytotoxicity by HLA-compatible CD8+ T-cells specific for NY-ESO-1, a well-recognized and immunogenic CTA. Additionally, exposure to SGI-110 enhances MHC class I and co-stimulatory molecule expression, potentially contributing to recognition of CTAs. SGI-110, like the parent compound decitabine, induces expression of CTAs and might modulate immune recognition of myeloid malignancy.Leukemia Research 09/2014; 38(11). DOI:10.1016/j.leukres.2014.09.001 · 2.69 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Once thought to be rare disorders, the myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are now recognized as among the most common hematological neoplasms, probably affecting more than 30,000 patients per year in the United States (US). US regulatory approval of azacitidine, decitabine, and lenalidomide between 2004 and 2006 seemed to herald a new era in the development of disease-modifying therapies for MDS, but there have been no further drug approvals for MDS indications in the US in the last 8 years. The available drugs are not curative, and few of the compounds that are currently in development are likely to be approved in the near future. As a result, MDS diagnoses continue to place a heavy burden on both patients and health care systems. Incomplete understanding of disease pathology, the inherent biological complexity of MDS, and the presence of comorbid conditions and poor performance status in the typical older patient with MDS have been major impediments to development of effective novel therapies. Here we discuss new insights from genomic discoveries that are illuminating MDS pathogenesis, increasing diagnostic accuracy, and refining prognostic assessment, and which will one day contribute to more effective treatments and improved patient outcomes.Blood 09/2014; 124(18). DOI:10.1182/blood-2014-04-522136 · 9.78 Impact Factor