Article

Multivitamin Use and the Risk of Mortality and Cancer Incidence The Multiethnic Cohort Study

Epidemiology Program, University of Hawaii Cancer Center, 1236 Lauhala Street, Honolulu, HI 96813, USA.
American journal of epidemiology (Impact Factor: 4.98). 02/2011; 173(8):906-14. DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwq447
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Although multivitamin/mineral supplements are commonly used in the United States, the efficacy of these supplements in preventing chronic disease or premature death is unclear. To assess the relation of multivitamin use with mortality and cancer, the authors prospectively examined these associations among 182,099 participants enrolled in the Multiethnic Cohort Study between 1993 and 1996 in Hawaii and California. During an average 11 years of follow-up, 28,851 deaths were identified. In Cox proportional hazards models controlling for tobacco use and other potential confounders, no associations were found between multivitamin use and mortality from all causes (for users vs. nonusers: hazard ratio = 1.07, 95% confidence interval: 0.96, 1.19 for men; hazard ratio = 0.96, 95% confidence interval: 0.85, 1.09 for women), cardiovascular diseases, or cancer. The findings did not vary across subgroups by ethnicity, age, body mass index, preexisting illness, single vitamin/mineral supplement use, hormone replacement therapy use, and smoking status. There also was no evidence indicating that multivitamin use was associated with risk of cancer, overall or at major sites, such as lung, colorectum, prostate, and breast. In conclusion, there was no clear decrease or increase in mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, or cancer and in morbidity from overall or major cancers among multivitamin supplement users.

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    • "and recent (HR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.01–1.52) use of multivitamins in women (Park et al., 2011 "
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    ABSTRACT: abstract We reviewed recent scientific evidence regarding the effects of MVM supplements on risk of chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and age-related eye diseases. Data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational, prospective cohort studies were examined. The majority of scientific studies investigating the use of MVM supplements in chronic disease risk reduction reported no significant effect. However, the largest and longest RCT of MVM supplements conducted to date, the Physicians' Health Study II (PHS II), found a modest and significant reduction in total and epithelial cancer incidence in male physicians, consistent with the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants (SU.VI.MAX) trial. In addition, PHS II found a modest and significant reduction in the incidence of nuclear cataract, in agreement with several other RCTs and observational, prospective cohort studies. The effects of MVM use on other subtypes of cataract and age-related macular degeneration remain unclear. Neither RCTs nor prospective cohort studies are without their limitations. The placebo-controlled trial design of RCTs may be inadequate for nutrient interventions, and residual confounding, measurement error, and the possibility of reverse causality are inherent to any observational study. National surveys show that micronutrient inadequacies are widespread in the US and that dietary supplements, of which MVMs are the most common type, help fulfill micronutrient requirements in adults and children.
    Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 06/2014; 55(14). DOI:10.1080/10408398.2014.912199 · 5.55 Impact Factor
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    • "Although the literature is limited, other similar observational studies have also shown positive effects on the risk mortality for both multivitamins (Park, Murphy, & Wilkens, 2011; Rautiainen et al., 2010) and single-nutrient supplements (DIPART (Vitamin D Individual Patient Analysis of Randomized Trials) Group, 2010; Lee, Willett, & Fuchs 2011; Patterson, White, Kristal, Neuhouser, & Potter, 1997). The Multiethnic Cohort Study most notably showed a decrease in cancer incidence, and thus mortality, with long-term consumption of multivitamins (Park et al., 2011). Multivitamins were inversely associated with myocardial infarction in a cohort of Swedish women, especially when used for long term by women without cardiovascular disease (Rautiainen et al., 2010), directly contradicting the findings of Mursu et al. (Mursu et al., 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT This special article seeks to provide balance and clarity to the confusion brought about by the conclusions resulting from a recent study published in Archives of Internal Medicine by Mursu et al. (2011). An examination of three key limitations of the study provides context to why additional research is needed: (a) Nonusers were poorly defined; (b) supplement users were healthier than nonusers; and (c) the number of supplement users increased throughout the study. Although the literature is limited, other similar observational studies have also shown positive effects on the risk mortality for both multivitamins and single-nutrient supplements. Observational trials are an essential component of evidence-based nutrition but do not offer certainty because other data, such as the one generated from randomized controlled trials, are equally important in regard to the totality of evidence. The Senior Scientific Advisory Committee for the Council for Responsible Nutrition, an industry trade group, feels that the conclusions of the study by Mursu et al. (2011) are overstated and suggests that researchers analyze cohort(s) designed to specifically examine vitamin and mineral supplements free of confounding from factors, such as hormone replacement therapy, to better assess their benefits to the general population.
    Journal of Dietary Supplements 05/2013; 10(2). DOI:10.3109/19390211.2013.783661
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the popular use of vitamin supplements and several prospective cohort studies investigating their effect on cancer incidence and cardiovascular disease (CVD), scientific data supporting their benefits remain controversial. Inconsistent results may be partly explained by the fact that use of supplements is an inconsistent behavior in individuals. We examined whether vitamin supplement use patterns affect cancer and CVD risk in a population-based cohort study in Japan. A total of 28,903 men and 33,726 women in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study cohort, who answered questions about vitamin supplement use in the first survey from 1990-1994 and the second survey from 1995-1998, were categorized into four groups (never use, past use, recent use, and consistent use) and followed to the end of 2006 for cancer and 2005 for CVD. Sex-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used to describe the relative risks of cancer and CVD associated with vitamin supplement use. During follow-up, 4501 cancer and 1858 CVD cases were identified. Multivariate adjusted analysis revealed no association of any pattern of vitamin supplement use with the risk of cancer and CVD in men. In women, consistent use was associated with lower risk of CVD (HR 0.60, 95% CI 0.41-0.89), whereas past (HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.02-1.33) and recent use (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.01-1.52) were associated with higher risk of cancer. To our knowledge, this is the first prospective cohort study to examine simultaneously the associations between vitamin supplement use patterns and risk of cancer and CVD. This prospective cohort study demonstrated that vitamin supplement use has little effect on the risk of cancer or CVD in men. In women, however, consistent vitamin supplement use might reduce the risk of CVD. Elevated risk of cancer associated with past and recent use of vitamin supplements in women may be partly explained by preexisting diseases or unhealthy background, but we could not totally control for this in our study.
    BMC Public Health 07/2011; 11:540. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-11-540 · 2.32 Impact Factor
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