Intratumor T helper type 2 cell infiltrate correlates with cancer-associated fibroblast thymic stromal lymphopoietin production and reduced survival in pancreatic cancer
ABSTRACT Pancreatic cancer is a very aggressive disease characterized by a marked desmoplasia with a predominant Th2 (GATA-3+) over Th1 (T-bet+) lymphoid infiltrate. We found that the ratio of GATA-3+/T-bet+ tumor-infiltrating lymphoid cells is an independent predictive marker of patient survival. Patients surgically treated for stage IB/III disease with a ratio inferior to the median value had a statistically significant prolonged overall survival, implying an active role for Th2 responses in disease progression. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), which favors Th2 cell polarization through myeloid dendritic cell (DC) conditioning, was secreted by cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) after activation with tumor-derived tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 1β. TSLP-containing supernatants from activated CAFs induced in vitro myeloid DCs to up-regulate the TSLP receptor (TSLPR), secrete Th2-attracting chemokines, and acquire TSLP-dependent Th2-polarizing capability in vitro. In vivo, Th2 chemoattractants were expressed in the tumor and in the stroma, and TSLPR-expressing DCs were present in the tumor stroma and in tumor-draining but not in nondraining lymph nodes. Collectively, this study identifies in pancreatic cancer a cross talk between tumor cells and CAFs, resulting in a TSLP-dependent induction of Th2-type inflammation which associates with reduced patient survival. Thus, blocking TSLP production by CAFs might help to improve prognosis in pancreatic cancer.
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ABSTRACT: During the last two decades, a number of approaches for the activation of the immune system against cancer has been developed. These include highly specific interventions, such as monoclonal antibodies, vaccines and cell-based therapies, as well as relatively unselective strategies, such as the systemic administration of adjuvants and immunomodulatory cytokines. Cytokines constitute a huge group of proteins that, taken together, regulate not only virtually all the aspects of innate and cognate immunity, but also several other cellular and organismal functions. Cytokines operate via specific transmembrane receptors that are expressed on the plasma membrane of target cells and, depending on multiple variables, can engage autocrine, paracrine or endocrine signaling pathways. The most appropriate term for defining the cytokine network is “pleiotropic”: cytokines are produced by - and operate on - multiple, often overlapping, cell types, triggering context-depend biological outcomes as diverse as cell proliferation, chemotaxis, differentiation, inflammation, elimination of pathogens and cell death. Moreover, cytokines often induce the release of additional cytokines, thereby engaging self-amplificatory or self-inhibitory signaling cascades. In this Trial Watch, we will summarize the biological properties of cytokines and discuss the progress of ongoing clinical studies evaluating their safety and efficacy as immunomodulatory agents against cancer.OncoImmunology 07/2012; 1(4):493-506. · 6.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent studies of human pancreatic cancer challenge the mouse model-derived notion that the pancreas is a site of immune privilege. A heavy infiltration of CD8(+) T cells expressing programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and smaller numbers of myeloid cells and regulatory T cells provides rationale for the clinical evaluation of immune checkpoint inhibition as a pancreatic cancer therapeutic strategy.OncoImmunology 11/2014; 3(8):e950171. DOI:10.4161/21624011.2014.950171 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tumor microenvironment is composed of all the untransformed elements in the vicinity of tumor, mainly including a large number of stromal cells and extracellular matrix proteins, which play an active role in most solid tumor initiation and progression. Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), one of the most common stromal cell types in the tumor microenvironment, have been demonstrated to be involved in tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Therefore, they are becoming a promising target for anti-cancer therapies. In this review, we firstly summarize the current understandings of CAFs' molecular biology, including the heterogeneous cellular origins and molecular markers, and then, we focus on reviewing their various tumor-promoting phenotypes involved in complex mechanisms, which can be summarized to the CAF-conveyed paracrine signals in tumor cells, cancer stem cells, and metastasis-initiating cancer cells, as well as the CAF-enhanced extrinsic tumor-promoting processes including angiogenesis, extracellular matrix remodeling, and tumor-related inflammation; finally, we describe the available directions of CAF-based target therapy and suggest research areas which need to be further explored so as to deepen the understanding of tumor evolution and provide new therapeutic targets for cancer treatment.Tumor Biology 02/2015; 36(3). DOI:10.1007/s13277-015-3230-8 · 2.84 Impact Factor